B.COM, B.A, B.SC 1ST Semester Communicative English notes | Unit – 4 Writing Skills


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B.COM, B.A , B.SC 1st Semester Communicative English notes ACCORDING TO CBCS PATTERN

Now a days every university is following syllabus based on CBCS Pattern. students are facing difficulties in getting all subjects notes as per CBCS Pattern. In this post i have provided you B.COM 1ST Semester Communicative English notes, B. A 1ST Semester Communicative English notes, B.SC 1ST Semester Communicative English notes. Hope you like it. Do share with your friends so they can also get the notes of new cbcs pattern

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B.COM, B.A, B.SC 1ST Semester Communicative English notes | Unit – 3 Reading and understanding


Note making is a productive skill that involves a systematic recording of the important points quickly, clearly and briefly when reading a text. Note taking is a critical success skill, too. It is a process that integrates both reading and writing skills. The more you practice the more proficient you will become.


Need for Note Making

The purpose for making notes may be all or any of the following: 

1. To keep a brief written record of the recording text for use and reference in future. 

2. To analyze, understand or interpret a text better

3. To prepare a synopsis that gives a bird-eye view of a text for revision before exams 

4. To update information and check for lapses in information 

5. To condense/rephrase and organize the material in such a way that it aids understanding.

6.Helps you to quickly and easily identify key terms and concepts

Tips for Note Making

Write phrases, not full sentences: Only record the key words that you need to get the idea of the point. Skip words like “the” and “a” that don’t add additional meaning to the lecture content. Retain key technical or discipline-specific terms.

Take notes in your own words. Paraphrase what you hear so it makes sense to you—it helps you to understand and remember what you hear. Try to paraphrase everything except where information needs to be noted exactly.

Structure your notes with headings, subheadings and numbered lists. Use headings to indicate topic areas or to include bibliographic details of the sources of information. Use outline form and/or a numbering system and indenting to help you distinguish major from minor points and as a clear way of indicating the structure of lecture information.

Code your notes—use colour and symbols to mark structure and emphasis.

Use colour to highlight major sections, main points and diagrams. You can also use different colours to classify and link concepts or information by topic. However, don’t focus too much on colour coding when you’re in the lecture. It requires time and concentration, so it’s more useful to do most of the highlighting and underlining when you’re revising your notes later.

Underline, circle, star, etc. to identify key information, examples, definitions, or other important materials. Devise your own marking code to indicate each type.

If you miss something, write key words, skip a few spaces, and get the information later. Leave a space on the page for your own notes and comments.

Use Symbols and Abbreviations

Symbols and abbreviations for frequently used words, phrases or names are useful for note taking in lectures when speed is essential

Process of note making

i. Reading: Read the passage carefully. Skim through the text to get the main idea just as you do when you read a newspaper article – you might not read it word by word but you get most of the information contained. Skimming is usually reading a text 3-4 times faster than normal reading and is usually adopted when a lot of material has to be read in a limited time. Make distinctions between the main idea, sub-points, facts, opinions, relevant and irrelevant material.

ii. Give a heading: Heading refers to the central idea of the topic. Write it in the centre of the page in bold. You can usually find the title in the first paragraph.

iii. Give sub-headings: Based on the organization of the text check out the rhetorical strategy used. Is it cause and effect, contrast and compare, narration, etc.  Accordingly frame your subheadings on the basis of how the main idea is being presented and developed. Give sub-sub headings if there are two or three subordinate ideas.. All subheadings must be written at a uniform distance from the margin and properly indented.

 iv. Listing out definitions and key items: If there are technical terms or frequently repeated concepts that need to be elaborated and explained or defined list them separately. They aid understanding.

v. Indenting: Indenting gives clarity and helps to give an organized look to your work. All main headings and subheadings should be uniformly indented.

vi. Use abbreviations and symbols: Instead of writing full sentences use abbreviations wherever possible.

     a. You can use standard abbreviation like UK for United Kingdom, USA for United States of America, Sc. for Science, Geog. for Geography, Govt. for government, Kg. for kilogram, CV for Curriculum Vitae, etc.

      b. You can also use the first few letter of the words like ‘sub’ for subject, hr for hour,Prof. for Professor, approx. for approximately, etc.

       c. You can write the first few and last few letters of a word with an apostrophe inbetween, e.g. w’out – for without, wrtg – for writing, can’t – for cannot, etc.

       d. You can use symbols e.g. @ for at the rate of, + for positive, – for negative, % for percentage.

       e. You can make use of commonly used abbreviation like ‘N.B’ for Take note that; site for that is, ‘et all for and others, ‘viz.’ for namely, ‘e.g.’ for example etc. However don’t abbreviate so enthusiastically that your notes lose sense. As a rule, avoid abbreviating in headings. Use it only for sub-headings.

Examples of Note Making -1  

  1.  Conversation is indeed the most easily teachable of all arts. All you need to do in order to become a good conversationalist is to find a subject that interests you and your listeners. There are, for example, numberless hobbies to talk about. But the important
    thing is that you must talk about other fellow’s hobby rather than your own. Therein lies the secret of your popularity. Talk to your friends about the things that interest them, and you will get a reputation for good fellowship, charming wit, and a brilliant mind. There is nothing that pleases people so much as your interest in their interest.
  2. It is just as important to know what subjects to avoid and what subjects to select for good conversation. If you don’t want to be set down as a wet blanket or a bore, be careful to avoid certain unpleasant subjects. Avoid talking about yourself, unless you are asked to do so. People are interested in their own problems not in yours. Sickness or death bores everybody. The only one who willingly listens to such talk is the doctor, but he gets paid for it.
  3. To be a good conversationalist you must know not only what to say, but how also to say it. Be mentally quick and witty. But don’t hurt others with your wit. Finally try to avoid mannerism in your conversation. Don’t bite your lips or click your tongue, or roll your eyes or use your hands excessively as you speak.
  4. Don’t be like that Frenchman who said, “How can I talk if you hold my hand?”


Title: The Art of Conversation Notes:

  1. Conv’n—most easily tch’ble art
    (a) Reqd. interest’g subject – hobbies
    (b) Talk about other fellow’s int./hobby
    (c) Win’g reptn. as good conversationalist
    (i) good f’ship
    (ii) charm’g wit
    (iii) brl. mind
  2. Fit subs, for conversationalist
    (a) What subs, to avoid/select?
    (b) Avoid unpl’nt subs.
    (i) sickness
    (ii) death
    (c) Avoid talk’g about self
  3. Qualities of a good conversationalist
    (a) What to say & how to say it
    (b) ment’y quick & witty
    (c) pleasant & unhurt’g
    (d) avoid mannerisms.

What is documentation?

The art of documenting is a writing skill that supports an assertion or claim with evidence and/or decisive information. It is not superficial reporting but has a more keen eye for detail. Literally, documentation refers to the preparation of documents or records. In fact documentation is to writing just as documentary is to cinema,

The art of documenting requires, first of all, a resource or information that has to be documented. When you have the information in hand you need to process it. The amount of information you have is not important – what is important is to be able to access the information you need on time. A library has a million books but unless you know where to look for the information you need, all the books are of no use.

Need for documentation

 In order to authenticate your information and to make it intelligible, coherent and interesting it is essential to document or put in writing all facts associated with the information. Getting people to read your document is equally important. Need for documentation may arise due to any of the following reasons:

1. As evidence to support your work

 2. To prepare a manual for training

3. To prepare a short piece of literature for beneficiaries

4. To share new technologies

5. To raise credibility

6. To provide information on a particular issue

7. To share knowledge and ideas

8. To advocate a point of view

9. To change mindsets or to persuade

10. To showcase expertiser

11. To capture indigenous knowledge or data that is fast disappearing

What is Process Documentation?

Process documentation provides a detailed description of how to carry out a business process.

It includes all types of documents that support a process, like

  • policies
  • checklists
  • tutorials
  • forms
  • screenshots
  • links to other applications
  • process maps

How to Document Processes

Using a step-by-step method to document a process will help you get it done quickly.

Step 1: Identify and Name the Process

Figure out which process you are going to document first. Determine its purpose (why and how the process will benefit the organization) and provide a brief description of the process.

Step 2: Define the Process Scope

Provide a brief description of what is included in the process and what is out of the process scope, or what is not included in it.

Step 3: Explain the Process Boundaries

Where does the process begin and end? What causes it to start? And how do you know when it’s done? Get these boundaries well defined.

Step 4: Identify the Process Outputs

Establish what will be produced by the process or what result the process will achieve once it is completed.

Step 5: Identify the Process Inputs

List down what resources are necessary to carry out each of the process steps.

Step 6: Brainstorm the Process Steps

Gather all information on process steps from start to finish.  Either start with what triggers the process or start at the end of the process and track back the steps to the starting point.

The brainstorming session should involve those who are directly responsible for the process tasks or someone with extensive knowledge of it, as they can provide precise data.

 Step 7: Organize the Steps Sequentially

Take the list of steps you’ve come up with and put them in a sequential order to create a process flow.

Keep the number of steps to a minimum and if a step includes more than one task, list them under the main step.

Step 8: Describe who is Involved

Decide each individual who will be responsible for the process tasks. Define their roles. Keep in mind to mention their job title rather than their name.

Also be considerate about those who would be referencing the document. Write it in a way that any employee with a reasonable knowledge can read and understand it.

Step 9: Visualize the Process

This is to improve clarity and readability of your documentation. Using a process flowchart, neatly visualize the process steps you’ve identified earlier.

Step 10: Note down Exceptions to the Normal Process Flow

A business process may not always follow the same flow due to various reasons. Mention these exceptions and what steps will be taken to address them.

Step 11: Add Control Points and Measurements

Identify where risks could occur in the process and add control points to help the process owner when monitoring the process.

Establish measurements to determine the effectiveness of the process and to help improve it.

Step 12: Review and Test the Process

Gather everyone involved and review the process flowchart you’ve mapped. Are there any missing steps? Is everything in order? Once done, test the process and see if you’ve missed anything.


A report is an official document written with utmost professionalism by a person having profound knowledge of the subject and a fair amount of flair for writing. A person writing a report must ponder over clarity, organisation and content so that the information presented is crystal clear) It must follow a consistent format and must naturally lead to a logical end.

Some of the important definitions of report are given below:

“A report is a communication from someone who has information to someone who wants to use that information.” -A.C. Brown

“In a very general sense a report is an account of something. It is usually an answer to a demand from some other person for information.” -Bruce Cooper

“A formal report presents in an organised form the information that has been requested by an authorised person.” – Philip S. Arhunson

“A business report is any factual objective document that serves a business purpose.” -Bovree CL & Thrill J.K

“Abusiness report is an orderly and objective communication of factual information that serves business purpose.”- Lesikar; Pettit. & Flatly


There are different types of reports that one needs to be familiar with. Some of them are discussed here:

1. Monthly Progress Report:  These are any routine progress reports that may be written monthly, bi-monthly, quarterly, half-yearly and yearly. It is different from a situation report because it only states what has happened and what was done about it during the reporting.

2. Community Project Report: These types of reports should include information about events — what actions were taken and should emphasise on the results of these actions. It is best organised into sections, corresponding to the sections of the proposal. It also gives a financial recording – details of where the money was received from, how much was spent (according to budget categories) and reasons for over- and under-spending, if any.

3. Routine Reports: The objective of the community project report is simple. However, in routine reports, the objectives of the company are different. Awareness has to be generated and people are mobilised to achieve the objectives. At times, even management training has to be given. This type of report is prepared on a routine basis to keep the management updated.

4. Field Trip Reports: Every field trip should have a purpose so a report on the field trip should begin with purpose of the trip. The purpose should justify making the trip. Technical details have to be included like date, location of place of travel, persons met (with their designations), name of the agency, time of meeting, venue, sites seen, meetings attended, etc. Make your list easy to read, easy to understand and brief, but complete. A field trip report should emphasise the results of that trip.

5. Meeting Reports: All meetings have a purpose and usually the purpose is related to achieving the objectives of the project. So, meeting reports must indicate the purpose of the meeting and progress towards achievement of the purpose.

6. Workshop Reports:  After each workshop, the coordinator (with input from other facilitators, including a written report from the main trainer) should write a report. The report should not be a list of activities that took place, but must indicate the result of those activities. Overall, every report should indicate what was expected or desired with what was achieved.

Characteristics of A Good Report

  1. Complete and Compact Document: Report is a complete and compact written document giving updated information about a specific problem.
  2. Systematic Presentation of Facts: Report is a systematic presentation of facts, figures, conclusions, and recommendations. Report writers closely study the problem under investigation and prepare a report after analyzing all relevant information regarding the problem. Report is supported by facts and evidence. There is no scope for imagination in a report which is basically a factual document.
  3. Prepared in Writing: Reports are usually in writing. Writing reports are useful for reference purpose. It serves as a complete, compact and self-explanatory document over a long period. Oral reporting is possible in the case of secret and confidential matters.
  4. Provides Information and Guidance: Report is a valuable document which gives information and guidance to the management while framing future policies. It facilitates planning and decision making. Reports are also useful for solving problems faced by a business enterprise.
  5. Self-explanatory Document: Report is a comprehensive document and covers all aspects of the subject matter of study. It is a self-explanatory and complete document by itself.
  6. Acts as a Tool of Internal Communication: Report is an effective tool of communication between top executives and subordinate staff working in an organization. It provides feedback to employees and to executives for decision making.
  7. Acts as Permanent Record: A report serves as a permanent record relating to certain business matter. It is useful for future reference and guidance.
  8. Time Consuming and Costly Activity: Report writing is a time consuming, lengthy and costly activity as it involves collection of facts, drawing conclusion and making recommendations.

Q. Mention the various steps involved in the preparation of report

Ans: All reports need to be clear, concise and well structured. A well-written report requires planning and preparation. The essential stages of successful report writing are described below.

Following steps involved in the preparation of report:

Step 1- Understand the purpose of the report

It is the important that you understand the purpose and requirements of your report. Keep in mind who the report is for, and why it is being written. Be sure that you understand all the instructions or requirements.

Step 2- Gather and select information

Gathering information is a time consuming and onerous task. You have to choose appropriate sources, read them and select only relevant information. Ensure that your sources are authentic

Step 3- Organize your content

A great deal of information is collected during the research period. Sort out and select the content relevant to your report. Group together the points that are related. They can be put together under sections or chapters. Thereafter, decide the sequence in which they have to be presented. Choose an order that is logical and easy to follow.

Step 4- Analyze your material

Prior to writing your rst draft for the report, analyze the material you have gathered critically. Look through carefully at the material, thinking about aws and limitations in evidence gathered, con icting data, veri able conclusions that can be drawn from it.

Step 5- Write the report

After your material has been organized into appropriate sections and headings you can write the rst draft of your report. Some people write the summary and contents page at the end when they know exactly what will be included. Write clearly and concisely. Avoid irrelevant, lengthy and confusing explanations or content.

Step 6-Review and redraft

Take a break before you review your rst draft. It is essential to get an appropriate perspective on the draft. You may rewrite or reorganize certain sections after the review. Assess, without any bias, the report from the perspective of a reader in terms of clarity, simplicity and relevance.

Step 7: Presentation

Once you are ready with your nal draft, check the presentation of the report. Make sure that the wording of each chapter/section/subheading is clear and accurate. Ensure proper sequencing in numbering of chapters, sections and appendices. Verify that you have mentioned all your sources and references. Check your report for errors of spelling or grammar. Errors in presentation or expression create a poor impression and can make the report di cult to read

Format of various reports

Newspaper Reports: These are accounts of current events and happenings


By (name of author)

Place, date (date is not always mentioned)

Body of report.

Magazine Reports: These are written to give account of speci c events that have taken place, for example,India International Fashion Week, School Annual Day etc.

Title/ Heading

By (name of author)

Body of report.

Formal/ Official Reports: These are complex documents often of important projects and proposals, eg. results of studies and experiments, proposals for launching a new product etc.

Format -1







Give details of the task and the reasons for it

Main Body:

Information, resources and material used,

Description of task



Your evaluation and suggestions.


  1. Title page-include
  1. To: name of person report being submitted to
  • From: name and department
  • Date of submission
  • Acknowledgements: A list of people and organizations that helped you in collecting data, research and in other aspects of getting the report ready.
  • Table of contents: a clear list of all sections and subsections of the report.
  • Summary: A summary of the major points, conclusions, and recommendations should be written to give a general idea of the report.
  • Introduction: Explain the problem and make clear to the reader why the report has been written.
  • Findings: Give details of the information collected, material used, methods utilized, and results arrived at.
  • Conclusions: Include implications and inferences of your ndings based on the facts described in your main body. The importance of the study is discussed in this section.
  • Recommendations: Give suggestions and proposals based on information and data collected.
  • Bibliography/References: Give a list of all the sources you have referred within your text.

Official report writing as such does not have a specific, fixed format. Many organizations have their own formats and styles that are used by their employees. Moreover, there are di erences in types of o cial reports, for example, company annual reports, audit reports, nancial reports etc

Sample Reports

Newspaper Reports

Sample 1

Daughter of Gardener Tops Board Exam`

By Riya Sharma

Bhubneshwar, May 12: Suman Nayak, the daughter of a municipal gardener, Om Nayak, has topped the Odisha Board Senior Secondary Examination with 98.8% marks. Her success has been lauded by the sta members of her school ‘The Government Senior Secondary School, Malkaganj’, the Odisha Education board and the State Education Minister.

When the news was conveyed to Suman by her classmates, she did not believe them. It was only when the school principal called her that the reality sunk in. Suman’s father, Om Nayak, is overjoyed at the news. He said, “Suman was always a bright student. I have made all e orts to provide her with the best education despite my meager means”. He hopes that she will be able to continue her education in spite of his nancial constraints.

Suman attributes her success to her parentsnd teachers. She said that the school teachers had provided her with all possible help by giving her extra time and attention along with books and moral support. Her perseverance, dedication and hard work are spoken highly of by her teachers.

When asked about her future plans, Suman said she wished to become a doctor. However, she was unsure if she could pursue her dream because of nancial problems. She hopes that she will be able to secure a scholarship and get funding by the government.

The Times Group has started an initiative to help Suman fulfill her aspirations. Anyone who wishes to contribute to Suman’s education can send the amount by cheque to, ‘Suman Nayak Education Fund’, The Times of India, M.G. Road, Bhubneshwar.

Sample 2

Commercial tax department to train its o  fficials and industry participants

TNN | May 6, 2017

INDORE: With an aim to become well equipped with the new Goods and Services Tax (GST) and address concerns of dealers, the commercial tax department started to train its officials and industry participants from Friday. The department has selected 25 locations in the state, covering 23 cities on different dates.

Manoj Choubey, deputy commissioner, commercial tax department said, “Our aim is to be fully prepared to handle GST from July. We started a training session from Friday that will most likely extend till the end of the month across Madhya Pradesh.”

Initially, the department will train all its officials and then conduct interactive training sessions for dealers.

GST — to be implemented in the country from July 2017 — aims to provide a single window tax structure across the country, simplifying tax refunds and inter-state transfer of goods and ensure merchant compliances.

According to the tax department, about 2,200 of its o cials across the state will be trained by experts. In Indore, two locations have been set by the department to conduct training sessions.

There are about 3 lakh dealers across the state registered with the commercial tax department of which close to 50,000 are from Indore, tax experts said.

“We plan to conduct corporate training as well under the session. Training session will bring clarity and technical knowhow about dealing with tax returns and other things under GST,” Choubey said.

Industry participants have raised serious concerns about various norms under GST stating the lack of clarity and training will lead to di culties in handling GST. This will prove especially true for small units that are not tech-savvy and do not have access to internet.

They said small industries are not computer literate and they will have to employ additional manpower to le returns every month.

(Source: The Times of India)

Sample 3


 By- Usha

Hyderabad, 20th March 2014. The World Book Fair which lasted for a month was the hot topic of all book lovers of Hyderabad. The World Book Fair was inaugurated by Hon’ble Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh on 20th August 2014. The venue of the fair was the Nizam College Ground. Almost all the leading publishers of the country participated in the fair. Many prestigious international publishing houses also registered their presence there. Every publishing house displayed its old and latest publications on the shelves. The display of books was quite impressive and tempting. The international publishing houses which made their presence felt were ‘Penguin’, ‘Modern Library, ‘Oxford University Press’, ‘Cambridge University Press, ‘Macmillan’ and ‘Orient Longman’. Among the Indian publishing houses, ‘Rupa’, ‘Rajkamal’, ‘Atma Ram & Sons’, ‘Rajpal and Sons’, ‘S. Chand & Co.’ and ‘Laxmi Publications (Pvt) Ltd.’ were the leading names that participated in the World Book Fair. Many famous men of letters visited the fair. They included Nirmal Verma, Rajender Yadav, Namvar Singh, Kamla Das and Khushwant Singh. Literature particularly the fiction, dominated the show. Computer and Engineering books were also in great demand. School and college students visited the fair in large numbers and bought their favourite books. Unfortunately, the high prices of books took their buyers away from them.

Sample 4


By- Harsh

Bangalore: 10th May, 2014. Fire accidents are the worst disasters. I had the misfortune of witnessing one of the most horrible fire accidents of recent times, the Kumbakonam fire accident. It caused an unprecedented loss of human lives and property. It was a beautiful morning. The whole town woke up to the sounds of drums and pipes. After all, it was a special day—the day of ‘Abhishek’ ceremony in the temple-town. Thousands of people had gathered there from different parts of Tamil Nadu and other states. Suddenly, an electric spark produced by a short circuit caused a fire in one corner of the huge ‘pandal. Worst of it all, the tents were made of highly inflammable synthetic material. Within seconds the place was converted into a blazing inferno. A devastating fire engulfed the whole area. Thousands of people were trapped under the burning tents. Human cries rent many hearts. Local people rushed to the site for rescue operations. The police and the fire brigade came late as usual. It took hours to control and put out the fire but not before more than 200 people were charred to death.

Magazine Report

Sample 1

St. Agnes Public School Celebrates Annual Day

By Manoj Upadhaya

St. Agnes School, Green Park, celebrated its annual day on May 2 with great fanfare. Mr. Arvind Kejriwal, the Chief Minister of Delhi, was the chief guest at the function. The programme began with the lighting of the lamp by the chief guest. It was followed by a welcome address and the presentation of the school annual report by the principal, Ms. Swati Mehra.

The rest item of the cultural program was presented by the primary wing. It was a musical drama on the necessity of protecting the environment for the future generations. The little children expressed themselves brilliantly bringing out the perils of destroying our planet.

The middle school show cased the culture of India through folk dances. Each dance was preceded by beautiful audio- visual e ects, depicting the main cultural features of the region. The colourful dresses of the graceful Garba dancers, the vigour and energy of Bhangra dancers, and lilting music with elegant swaying movements of the Bihu and Hajgiri dancers from the North East, enthralled the audience.

The senior school pupils enacted a play depicting the dangers of internet and social media addiction for adults and children. They brought out the message poignantly. Every child and adult was moved by the acting and story of a young life ruined by social media addiction. The audience gave a loud and long round of applause for all participants.

The grand nale was the speech by Mr. Arvind Kejriwal. He highly praised the performances by the children and appreciated the thought provoking themes chosen by them. The programme concluded with a vote of thanks by Sagar Mehta, the school head boy.

Sample 2

Almost 900 H1N1 cases reported: WHO

Headlines Today

Geneva, May 4, 2009

Though the World Health Organisation’s (WHO) alert level remains one short of a global pandemic, 18 countries have now reported laboratory confirmed cases.

The number of suspected H1N1 flu cases across the globe has touched 898 with 20 confirmed deaths so far. Though the World Health Organisation’s (WHO) alert level remains one short of a global pandemic, 18 countries have now reported laboratory confirmed cases.

Colombia became the rst South American country to report a case. However, US health o cials are cautiously optimistic that the u isn’t as dangerous as it was first feared.

Mexico remains the worst affected with 506 cases and 19 deaths. However, the country’s Health Secretary feels that the epidemic is now declining.

But the WHO is not dropping the level  five alert just yet.

(Source: India Today)

Formal Report

Ganga River Cleaning Project

To: Mr. Sunil Gupta, Joint Secretary, Ministry of Environment

From: Mr. Nilesh Upadhaya, Research O     cer, Ministry of Environment

Date:15th April 2017

Subject: Cleaning the Ganga River


I am deeply grateful to all the people who extended their invaluable help and support in the research and writing of the report. I wish to especially thank Mr. Sushil Dhar, Mr. Premnath Singh , Mr. Rajiv Kumar and Mr. Pramod Bansal.


  1. Introduction
  • Causes
  • Effects
  • Solutions
  • Conclusion
  • Bibliography


Our National River, Ganga, remains one of the most polluted in the world, denying vast populations of their rights to clean water. The problems associated with pollution of Ganga are numerous. It has multiple cause related to the issue. The contamination of the water effects humans, flora and fauna as well as the ecology of areas along the river. However, there are solution and remedies which can be implemented to save the dying river.


The river Ganga is often referred to as ‘the dying river’ due to its continuing pollution for decades. This reports attempts to state the current situation and the damage to the environment and ecosystem being caused by pollution of the river. Several solutions to clean the river have been suggested to restore the river to its pristine state.


  1. Over exploitation- Exploitation of Ganga’s waters have rendered long stretches of the river completely dry for much of the year. Almost 80% of the water is diverted for agricultural purposes.
  • Dumping of sewage waste- accounts for 80% of pollution in the Ganga River.
  • Discarding Industrial waste- Toxic industrial e uents dumped into the river account for 20% of the pollution.
  • Agricultural pollution- Water intensive farming and run-o from inorganic farms, including dangerous chemicals like DDT and HDH, add to the pollution.
  • Disposal of solid waste- Tons of plastic, polythene, images of gods, and other trash are thrown into the Ganga River, choking her waters and blocking existing sewerage systems.
  • Harvesting electricity-The varied dams built along the Ganga have affected her flow, thus

effecting the ecology of the river.

  • Ecological degradation- deforestation, encroachment, tourism and other human activities are damaging the fragile ecosystems the Ganga River supports.


  1. Spread of disease: Drinking polluted water can cause cholera or typhoid infections, along with diarrhea.
  • Affects body organs: The consumption of highly contaminated water can cause injury to the heart and kidneys.
  • Harms the food chain: Toxins within water can harm aquatic organisms, thus breaking a link in the food chain.
  • Causes algae in water: waste matter causes Algae to in a water source. Bacteria feed o the algae, decreasing the amount of oxygen in the water. The decreased oxygen causes harm to other organisms living in the water.
  • Flooding: The erosion of soil into waterways causes  ooding, especially with heavy rainfall.
  • Harms animals: Birds that get into oil-contaminated water die from exposure to cold water and air due to feather damage. Other animals are a ected when they eat dead sh in contaminated streams.

The effeects of water pollution are not always immediate. However, water pollution has a huge impact on our lives. With knowledge, consideration and preparation, water pollution can be decreased. It does not take much effort — just a little thought.


There are several steps that can be taken to help prevent water pollution from getting worse.

  1. Take steps to conserve soil. It results in conserving water and water life. Planting vegetative covers,strict erosion management and implementing beneficial farming methods are just a few of the many possible approaches to soil conservation.
  • Restore ecological  flows at every point along the Ganga’s course.
  • Prevent and curtail all wastewater, starting with sewage and industrial waste, from mixing with the river. Install sewage and effluent treatment plants.
  • Promote massive water conservation and water resource management, including rain water harvesting schemes.
  • Involve stakeholders in all ways to clean the river.
  • Implement policies and plans that connect state and local bodies, addressing their challenges and encouraging training and capacity-building programs.
  • Start mass awareness campaigns and media-based water eco-consciousness campaigns that get people to not only stop pollution, but to also become an active part of the solution.


Cleaning the Ganga river is feasible and possible project. It requires strict implementation of policies formulated by the government, involvement of all stakeholders and involving general population at every level in the e ort to reach the goal of having an uncontaminated river.

Bibliography/ References :

  1. Conaway, Cameron (2015-09-23). “The Ganges River is Dying Under the Weight of Modern India”. Newsweek. Retrieved 2017-04-11.
  • “Ganja receives 2,900 million ltrs of sewage daily’”. http://www.hindustantimes.com/. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
  • “The WaterHub”. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
  • A Sacred River Endangered by Global Warming 17 June 2007.
  • Wohl, Ellen E. 2012. A world of rivers: environmental change on ten of the world’s great rivers. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Ganga, Yamuna banks cleaned 12 November 2013.



An article is a piece of writing mainly intended to be published in a newspaper, magazine or journal, and has a wide audience. Article writing is the process of creating a non- ction text about topics that can vary from very serious to the ordinary. They can discuss areas such as current issues or topics of general interest such as health, politics, entertainment, environmental concerns, etc. Since it is written for a wide audience, it is essential that the language used is interesting, yet simple, and includes stories, anecdotes and facts to keep the readers engaged. The language used in an article can be formal or informal depending on the target audience, but it must be less formal than a report

What can an article do?/ Advantages of an article

Unlike a report, an article can do much more than simply report an event or state facts.

  1. It can offer suggestions and advice.
  2. It can provide information on various topics/subjects.
  3. It can bring about a comparison.
  4. It can describe a location, person, object, technology, etc.
  5. It can simply amuse and bring a smile on the readers face.
  6. It can enable readers to think, hence it can influence.
  7. It can o er opinions, arguments/counter arguments

Format of an Article

An article is usually considered part of informal writings. There are no rules or techniques to abide by while writing articles, yet an organized structure is preferred. Hence, a basic outline of the format needs to be studied.

Heading/Title: Eye- catching; illustrating the central theme

By Line: Writer’s name (to be mentioned under the title towards the right)

Introduction: Establish the context. Draw the readers’ attention using anecdotes, startling facts, statistics,rhetorical questions or quotations.

Body: 2-3 paragraphsdetailing the various aspects of the topic i.e. merits, demerits, causes, consequences,effeects, advantages, disadvantages.

Conclusion: A formal and logical end to the above written content; a summary of all that has been includedin the article. One may conclude with a final opinion, recommendation or a comment expressing a hope, a warning, an appeal or a call for action.

Points to Remember

  • The topics should be unique and of relevance.
  • Know the target audience.
  • Identify the aim of writing the article- to advise, inform, entertain, compare, describe, etc.
  • The title should be short and eye- catching.
  • Begin with a striking opening sentence which gets the readers interested in the topic.
  • The writer must have enough to say; choose your ideas beforehand.
  • Be true to what your write, make assertions and go by them throughout the article.
  • Keep the article brief; unnecessary repetitions and irrelevant information makes it boring.
  • Break the article into paragraphs; it acts as a breather.
  • Pay attention to the choice of voice and tense.
  • Conclude logically.

Steps in Article writing

Like reports, articles too need to be well written to hold the readers’ attention. The stages of article writing are discussed below.

Step 1 : Identify the target audience

Before you begin writing, it is important to consider who the intended readers are. Are they a specific group such as students or businessmen, or adults in general?

Step 2: Identify the purpose of writing

Identify the aim of the article. Is your aim to advise, suggest, inform, compare and contrast, describe, etc.? Step 1 and Step 2 are the deciding factors in the layout of your article, its style, language and level of formality.


If the topic for the article is ‘Careers in Commerce’, then the target audience will be students of Commerce. The article would be an informative one detailing the various careers that a commerce student can choose from, colleges / universities, eligibility, and selection process. The tone must be formal and the language easy and straightforward. If the article is meant for doctors then technical jargon related to the eld of medicine can be used.

Step 3: Collect and select information

The third step is to collect information that is available on the selected topic. You may use various sources such as books, interviews, etc. Read through them and select relevant information. It is important to ensure that the information you have collected is authentic and reliable.

Step 4: Organise the information sequentially and logically

Once the information has been gathered and selected, you must organise it so that it follows a logical order.

You can make use of mind maps and flow –charts to organise the content.

Step 5: Write the article

Once you have determined the information you are going to use and organized your ideas, write the article.

The article could be formal, semi-formal or informal, depending on your intended audience.

First, give your article a title that catches the attention of the reader. Then begin writing the article with a striking opening sentence which addresses the readers and gets them interested in the topic. Remember to present a strong argument for your ideas supporting it with evidences or elaboration. Your attempt must be to develop your ideas as much as you can to make them interesting and substantial. Finally, conclude with your strongest point.

Use vocabulary and descriptive language appropriate for the article. Linking words and expressions, and a variety of vocabulary will only improve your work and make it more interesting. Use passive voice, humor, rhetorical questions to provide a specific effeect.

Do not talk about yourself. You are writing for the general public, not a close circle of friends. Your opinionsare only interesting to other people if you can make them amusing, justify them or explain them.

Sample Articles

Article 1

The colour green: corporate conscience or fashion statement?

by Brendon Craigie

Hot wire has conducted a major audit looking at the greening of corporate communications and its potential in uence on consumer purchasing habits across Europe.

They researched ve sectors (retail, banking & finance, manufacturing and automotive, utilities and technology & telecoms) in ve countries (the UK, France, Germany, Spain and Italy) looking at how frequently companies use green issues in their external communications vehicles. In this instance press releases were selected as the representative communications tool. We coupled this with pan-European consumer research that identified how green issues affect the purchasing decisions of consumers in the same sectors and countries.

Contrary to popular opinion, companies across Europe do not greenwash their communications wholesale. The Hotwire study has found that across all the sectors green appeared as a theme relatively infrequently – in only 7.5%-17% of companies’ external communications. French companies use green issues the most at 17% while German companies are least likely at 7.5%. These are interesting findings

– with Germany very much an international leader in terms of energy efficiency we put it more down to regional ‘style’ than the reality of the companies’ initiatives. However, while it is good to see that companies are not opting for a cheap greenwash across the board, it is also interesting to note that they are not in synch with consumer interest for green products and services. While companies communicate about green issues relatively infrequently the consumer interest in all things green is very high. When asked to score their interest in ‘green’ between 1 and 10 (10 being the highest) European consumers scored on average between 6.3 (Germany) and 8 (France). Consumers in Spain, the UK and Italy scored 7, 7.2 and 7.7 respectively. In other words, consumer interest is very high but in terms of corporate communications, companies are not doing much to satisfy the interest.

The technology & telecoms sector is an interesting sector in terms of how it currently communicates around green, and what in uences the buying decision when purchasing technology products and services. The UK is the only country that communicates in any volume (22% of technology companies’ external communications) about ‘green’. At 5 out of 10, the consumer research indicates that ‘green’ is not a very compelling driver for British consumers in the technology space, however there is some interest and UK-based companies are doing a few things to garner that interest. In the rest of Europe PR professionals in the technology space have huge opportunities. While consumer interest is pretty high at between 5.5 and 6.1, the companies’ corporate communications e orts have so far ignored the green agenda. In France only 7% of external communications by technology companies include the green theme, in Germany 1%, Spain 2.9% and in Italy 0%. There are some big openings for being the green champion in the technology & telecoms industries in France, Germany, Spain and Italy.

(Source: http://www.reusablearticles.com)

Article 2

The Health Problems of Tattoos

by Paul Silver

Tattoos have been around for thousands of years, but they have always had their health problems. The main potential problem with getting a tattoo is infection.

The tattooing process involves pushing pigment far down into the dermis of the skin with a needle. With modern stainless steel and sterilisation machines, this is much easier to keep clean and problem-free than the original tattooing method of rubbing ash in to wounds, but problems can still occur. If a tattooing needle is not completely and totally clean when it pierces your skin, it can deposit germs deep in to the skin along with the pigment it is delivering.

A major problem with infection from unclean tattooing is it can infect the recipient with Hepatitis B. In turn, hepatitis can cause in ammation of the liver, which is painful to start with, and if left to develop can become chronic and cause long-term damage and even death.

Initial symptoms of a Hepatitis infection can last for up to two weeks, and include a raised temperature, headache, and lack of energy. After this, jaundice can develop, and then potentially anorexia, nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. If left untreated you will probably then experience upper abdominal pain, a tender, enlarged liver and enlarged lymph glands in your neck.

By this point, the pain and other symptoms should have taken you to the doctors. They will need to carry out blood tests to con rm which strain of Hepatitis you have contracted (there are five types, A-E.) If you have developed a bad infection, you may need hospital care to recover, mainly so doctors can spot if you have the early stages of acute liver failure.

Up to 95% of adults with a Hepatitis B infection will recover fully, but the rest may develop life-long chronic Hepatitis, especially if they already have immunodefficiency problems before they get the infection.

Infection can be prevented by good living conditions, and Hepatitis B can be prevented with a vaccination, which many tattooists will have as a preventative measure as they do not wish to catch Hepatitis B from their customers, some of who may carry it unknowingly.

When you receive a tattoo, be con dent that the tattooist’s equipment is properly sterilised, that they have been checked out by the local health department, and that you’re con dent that they are clean. No responsible tattooist will mind showing you how they ensure their equipment is clean and safe. When the tattoo is healing, make sure you keep the tender area clean, and that you do not expose yourself to possible infection through poor hygiene or living conditions.

After receiving your tattoo, if you run a temperature, get headaches or a sudden lack of energy to do anything, get in touch with your doctor straight away. It is much better for it to be diagnosed as not being a problem than to risk having a Hepatitis infection and not having it treated as early as possible.

Instead of getting a permanent tattoo, you could get a temporary one. They are available in a wide range of designs, from star tattoos to tribal styles, and don’t carry any risk of infection.

(Source: http://www.reusablearticles.com)

Article 3

Genius has gender? Only in our minds

When Cambridge University advised its examiners to avoid words like ‘genius’ and ‘brilliant’ because they exclude women, many of us rolled our eyes and dismissed it as political correctness gone wild. But close your eyes – what’s the rst image that comes to your mind when you hear the word genius? Is it Albert Einstein? Stephen Hawking or Srinivasa Ramanujan, perhaps? Shakespeare or Premchand? Steve Jobs? Whether you’re female or male, odds are your mind sees a man.

These associations affect our perceptions of others, which in turn a effects their self-image and choices. Gender gap in the sciences, for instance, can be partly explained by the notion that these areas call for ‘genius’ or raw natural ability, which many women don’t feel con dent they possess. Reasons for that lack of confidence are also cultural; in the US a depressing piece of research found that even six-year-olds were

likely to think of only boys as ‘brilliant’. When professors are rated, it’s men who’re described as stars and visionaries, and the same qualities are overlooked or disparaged in women. Think of the routine putdown ‘hysterical’, which literally means a disorder caused by the womb.

The idea of a lone genius is a Romantic myth; hard work, collaboration and luck have as much to do with accomplishment as ability, and none of these traits are sexual characteristics. Thinking harder about how we ing around words like air and brilliance might foster a better intellectual climate, all around.


Article 4

Grow More Trees to Reduce Pollution

By Radhika

“Trees are poems the earth writes upon the sky.”

Trees and plants are one of the main reasons why mankind came into existence. The importance of planting trees has been emphasized time and again. This is because of the numerous benefits they offer.

They make the world a better place to live in. They exhale oxygen and inhale carbon dioxide to maintain the ecological balance in the environment. They also absorb all the harmful gases and give us fresh air to breathe.

Trees build a sheet to protect us from the harmful ultra violet rays. Not only this, they serve as a habitat for birds and various species of animals. This is not it. Trees help in controlling water pollution and preventing soil erosion.

The places inhabited by large number of trees are quite cooler compared to the concrete jungles that cannot do without air conditioners. Unfortunately, urbanisation is leading to clearing of forests and parks despite the numerous benefits they offer. People come here for morning walks, evening strolls, yoga sessions and laughter therapy. These also serve as a safe place for the kids to play and socialise. The only way left to preserve them and reap these benefits is by growing them at a faster rate.

As a Chinese proverb states, “The best time to plant a tree was 20 years ago. The second best time is now.” So do your bit and make this place more beautiful.

Thank you

Q. What is letter writing?

A letter is a written message that can be handwritten or printed on paper. It is usually sent to the recipient via mail or post in an envelope, although this is not a requirement as such. Any such message that is transferred via post is a letter, a written conversation between two parties.

Q . What is business letter? Disscuss the functions of business letter.

Ans: A business letter is a letter from one company to another, or between such organizations and their customers, clients, or other external parties. The overall style of letter depends on the relationship between the parties concerned. Business letters can have many types of content, for example to request direct information or action from another party, to order supplies from a supplier, to point out a mistake by the letter’s recipient, to reply directly to a request, to apologize for a wrong, or to convey goodwill. A business letter is sometimes useful because it produces a permanent written record, and may be taken more seriously by the recipient than other forms of communication.


Business letters are highly useful in introducing trade relations and promoting business transactions. They provide convenient and inexpensive means of communication without personal contacts, furnish evidences of transactions and help in creating good impression and goodwill. For detail, we discuss the following functions performed by business letters.

Business letters serve the following purposes

(1) Record and Reference

Business letters function as permanent record of dealing with customers, suppliers and government agencies etc. Therefore, they can serve as a ready reference if certain quarries arise relating to them. This is not possible, especially when the transactions are innumerable and the number of persons dealt with is large, and if communication is oral or telephonic, (unless all conversations are recorded.) A pale ink is better than the sharpest memory.

 (2) Evidence of Contracts

Business letters act as a valid document and evidence of the contracts between the two parties. A letter signed by the proprietor, managing director or other responsible officer is an authentic proof, fully recognized by the courts of law. Therefore communication on telephone, telex or telegraph needs to be confirmed in black and white.

(3) Public Relations

Business letters serve as formal as well as informal business relations even without personal contacts. They help to build goodwill among clients and creditors and create a positive image of the organization among the readers and win friendliness of the other parties. These letters are the silent ambassadors of the company.

(4) Business in remote:

Business letters serve the business in case of dealing with persons operating in remote areas, where means of transport & communication have not developed or the distances are too large to deal with economically. Business letters can reach even that place which is thousands of miles away or is situated in any corner of the world.

Q. Explain the various types of business letters.

The various types of business letters can be classified as follow:

1. Request Letters

Request letters are written to gain a specific response from the reader. In request letters, e.g. asking for some information asking for questions, asking for job, etc, une approach of such letter is usually direct especially when the audience is interested respond favorably. If the audience is be persuaded to comply with request, mgie approach is followed.

2. Good News Letters

Good news letters are written to convey pleasant news to the reader. For example arnnouncing price cut, granting an adjustment, congratulating the reader, etc. are good news letters.

3. Bad News Letters

Bad News letters are written to convey negative information. The purpose of writing wih letters is to convey the negative message in a manner acceptable to the reader and to avoid reader’s negative reaction.

4. Persuasive Letters

Persuasive letters are written when the reader is not ready to comply with the request. These letters are written in indirect way to persuade the reader for particular action. Such letter include proposals and recommendations, job application letters, circular letter, sales letters, etc.


1.Heading: All companies have their printed letterheads containing the name, address,

telephone, fax and telegraph address. The details are generally printed at the centre of

the page.

2. Reference number: This number refers to the number that serves the purpose of

quick reference for all future correspondence with the receiver. It links up the chain of letters going out of an organisation or circulated within the organisation.The reference number may look like this:


Here, 87 stands for the code given to the departments, SD is the code for Sales department and 4001 is the number allotted to the person addressed.

3. Date: The date can be written on either the left or right hand side in a letter. It is

usually written parallel to the reference number. The abbreviated forms (18/09/14 or 18.9.14) are not appropriate for a formal letter. The following format should be used September 18, 2014.

4. Inside address: This refers to the name and address of the organization /individual to Which the  letter is being sent. It is written below the reference line. It should contain all essential details. It may be written with open closed punctuations

5. Attention line; When a letter is directed to a particular official, the writer may use the attention line as described below (The attention line is usually underlined): :

For the attention of: Mr. Rohit Khanna (General Manager) 6. Salutation: Salutation is the way you greet the addressee. It is chosen on the basis of the situation and the degree of formality with which you wish to address the person. You may simply use Sir/Madam, Dear Sir/Dear Madam, Dear Mr Sharma/Dear Ms Sharma, Dear Sirs.

7. Subject: Just like the title of an essay or a newspaper headline, the subject carries the purpose of a letter. The subject line enables the reader to identify the reference of the correspondence. It contains the date of previous correspondence and invoice number which makes it easy for the reader to link the letter to the previous correspondences. It is written just below the salutation. It may begin with a left margin or may be placed in the centre depending on the format chosen. The subject line should look as given under:

Subject: Regarding loan facilities for govt. employees.

8. Body of the letter: The body is divided into three parts:

(a) Introduction

(b) Main content

(c) Conclusion

The introduction or the opening paragraph introduces the reader to the purpose of the letter and establishes a rapport with him. It also gives link of the previous correspondence with the reader. The main paragraph contains the proper subject or intent of the writer. He may use another paragraph to elaborate or develop his idea. The conclusion refers to the goodwill ending which leaves scope for future business with the reader. The last paragraph generally ends on a positive note. The closing paragraph should reinstate the purpose of the letter and mostly requests some kind of action. For block and modified block formats single space and left justify each,

paragraph and leave a blank line between the paragraphs.

9. Formal close: The ending must match the beginning, i.e., choose the proper closing remark keeping in mind the salutation.

Dear Sir/Madam ] Yours faithfully, Sir

Dear Mr Sharma ] Yours sincerely,

Note: “Yours’ is one word without an apostrophe, so it should be written as your and not as your’s or yours?. ‘Yours’ begins with a capital Y but faithfully in *sincerely’ begin with small letters.

10. Signature: The signature includes not only the signature of the writer but also the name, status department, company, etc. The legibility of the writer cannot be ensured co the name of the signatory should be written in parenthesis below the signature.

(B.C. Sharma)

Sales Manager

11.Enclosure: The abbreviated form is ‘Encl.’ Sometimes a letter carries some important paper like forms, copies of certificates, cheques, receipts, etc. It is advisable to mention these enclosures as shown below: Encl:




12 Post Script: The abbreviated form of post script is PS. It is used to mention something important that the writer may have forgotten in the course of the letter. In such a case the writer may give additional information in as few words as possible. Generally, the writer is not supposed to omit or forget an important item. Too long a post script does not leave a very positive impression on the reader and must be avoided.

13. Carbon copy: The abbreviated for of Carbon Copy is CC. When copies of a same

letter are sent to many people, the names of the persons to whom copies are to be sent should be written below the post script in the left margin as follows:

CC: Mr RC Mishra

Mr Atul Pandey

Mr R Parthsarthy

14. Reference initials: Some companies have done away with the practice of putting

typed initials of the persons who dictates the letter and one who types it. But it is a conventional practice which is useful for office checking. They can be written in the left margin as:



(CNS is the initials of the person who dictated the letter and AW of the person who typed it.)

Points to remember while drafting formal letters

• Use the specifed format.

Leave a line/additional space between paragraphs since no indentation is followed.

• State your reason for writing in your first paragraph. Your objective while composing a formal letter should be to present the key facts as quickly and as simply as you can.

Keep the language simple. Formal does not mean complicated. Use simple language that is easy to read and understand.

• At all times add details and information that will make the addressee’s (or receiver’s) _ task easys. For example: If you are writing to an organization to apply for a job, mention the post you are applying for along with your qualifications and experience. If you are writing to a service centre, mention specifics such as model number, year of purchase, invoice number, etc. about the product along with a description of the problem you are facing.

• If you wish to make a reference to previous letters or conversations, payments, etc. provide details such as date, invoice number, quotations, cheque numbers, etc.

• Always be gentle and courteous while directing the receiver’s course of action.

• Do not forget to be polite even if it is a complaint letter you are writing.

• Check to ensure that your letter is free from any mistakes, i.e. grammatical or spelling.


1. Letters of Enquiry

A letter of enquiry is one of the most important types of business letters. These letters are written to gather information from various sources about people seeking jobs, prices of services and products, etc. They help the receiver decide whether they should give jobs and promotions, grant credits or enter into contracts. They may also be written to third parties asking for information about jobs or about organizations wishingto build a business relationship.

When writing a letter of enquiry, you should:

• Give a brief introduction about yourself with the name of your organization.

• Provide the details about the subject of inquiry.

• Present queries in bullet points if you require a lot of information.

• Mention the deadline by when you require the information.


Zest Designs

F- 671, AH – Block


New Delhi – 18

29 October, 20XX


Creative Catering

59, Kailash Colony

New Delhi- 32

Dear Mr. Khan

Subject: Enquiry about catering services

With reference to your advertisement dated October 20, 20XX, we wish to enquire about your catering services. Our organization is celebrating its 50th foundation anniversary in the coming month and we are looking for somebody who would cater for our celebration dinner.

We are expecting at least 500 guests and employees during the said event. It will be a formal event and we will need full catering services that include several courses, desserts, and waiters and hosts. Kindly provide us with details about the following:

• Whether your catering service has the ability to handle a lavish celebration with a large audience such as ours.

• Whether waiters and hosts are provided by you

• Offers and discounts available

• The menu options and charges

• If there are any additional charges levied for linens, centerpieces, etc.

We shall be grateful if you could furnish the above mentioned details along with your quotations as soon as possible.

Thank you.

Yours sincerely

Ms. Sadhna Kakkar


Zest Designs

2. Order Letters

An order letter is written by a buyer to the seller requesting him to deliver goods. These letters include three major types of information.

1. Details about the item or product being ordered: Complete information and specifications of the goodsordered must be provided in an order letter. Such information includes the followings:

• Name of product

• Name of brand

• Unit price

• Quantity

• Other specifications (such as catalog number, model number, colour, size, weight, etc.) if required

2. Information relating to shipping: In absence of shipping information, misunderstanding can arise between buyer and seller. Shipping information may include the followings:

• Desired receipt date

• Desired shipping location

• Mode of shipping (rail, road, or waterways)

3. Information relating to payment: Mode of payment must be clearly indicated. The seller will accept the order letter only when both agree to the terms and conditions of payment. Payment information includes the following:

• Mode of payment (cash, cheque, draft)

• Payment date


APS School


12 June 20XX

Best Sports & Co.

21, Mall Road

Chennai -12

Subject : Placing an order for sports equipment.

Dear Sir

As discussed telephonically, we wish to place a bulk order for the supply of the following sports equipments for our school.

1Basket ball1 dozenCosco, No.6  
2Football1 dozenCosco, No.18  
3Badminton net4 unitsNivea
4Hockey stick1 dozenAlfa Hockey
5Badminton racket2 dozenCarlton gpx – 11  
6Cricket sets5 setsGM apex

The above mentioned equipment should reach us latest by 15 July 20XX. You are requested to ensure that high quality products are supplied. The initial up-front payment of 20% is enclosed (cheque no.124321 for an amount Rs. 15,000/-). As discussed telephonically, the balance payment will be made at the time of delivery in the form of a demand draft after adjusting the applicable discount. An early delivery would be appreciated.

Yours sincerely

John Mathews.

(Principal )

3. Letters of Complaint

In the business world, where selling and providing services to fulfill needs of customers plays an important role, there will also be scope for complaints raised by customers due several reasons. A letter of complaint letter enables us to notify an individual, company or business that we are dissatisfied with a product purchased or a service received from them. A complaint letter can be written in an individual capacity or on behalf of a company. Writing a compliant letter is an effective and professional way to get the problems resolved. While writing a letter of complaint, you should:

• Give a clear and detailed description of the problem you are facing and what you want done (i.e. the outcome).

• Include important dates. It is imperative that you mention the date on which you placed an order, purchased the goods or services and when the problem occurred. If you are following up on a previous complaint that you made, you may even need to include the date on which you made the first complaint.

• Give details of what action you have taken up till now to solve the problem and what you plan to do if the problem is not resolved.

• Ask for a response. Give the seller a reasonable time limit to respond to your request, but state with clarity that you expect a response from them.

• Attach a copy of any supporting relevant documentation such as a receipt or invoice.

• Never make personal accusations/allegations.

• Avoid discussing any other concern besides the complaint issue.

Sample Complaint letter

XYZ Corporation

Rajeev Chowk


15 December, 20XX

The General Manager

Sales and Purchase Division

ABC Electronics

Bailey Road


Dear Sir/Madam

Subject: Complaint against the order no. S/N-115.

This is with reference to Order no. S/N 115 made on December 1, 20XX. The order comprised six 2 tonne split air-conditioners of XXX brand and four 1.5 tonne window air-conditioners of XYZ brand. As per the agreement, the products were to be delivered within ten days of order and a representative was to be sent for installation and demo. Unfortunately, only half the order has been delivered and no representative has visited for installation or demo.

The fact that you have taken undue time and have not yet delivered the order, has caused us great embarrassment and inconvenienced our clients. In addition we have received no correspondence from your side explaining the delay.

Kindly ensure that the remaining items of the order are delivered to us before December 20, 20XX failing which payment will be stopped or the order cancelled.

I sincerely request you to look into the matter and do the needful as soon as possible.

Thanks and Regards.

Ashita Bhargava

Sr. Manager

Operations and Admin Department

Sample 2

Manager Operations and Admin

Net Solutions


13thFeb, 2018

Administration Head

Food for you Solutions


Dear Sir/Madam

Sub: Complaint against food quality

This  with  reference  to  the  food  supplied  to  our  cafeteria  by  your  company’s  kitchen. Unfortunately,  for  the  past  few  weeks,  we  have  observed  a  degradation  in  the  quality  of food items, especially rice, wheat flour and pulses.

A  few  of  our  employees  complained  of  ill  health  after  having  consumed  your  food.  I presume stale food is not being sent to us.

Kindly assure that the raw material you use is of high quality standards and is ISI approved.

I sincerely request you to look into this matter as it involves the health of people working for us, for which we are solely responsible.

Thanks and Regards,


Ops and Admin

Net Solution

Sample 3

 XYZ Electronics

New Delhi,

Date: 20th Dec, 2018

Manager, Customer Care

XYZ Electronics

New Delhi,

Dear Sir/Ma’am

Sub: complaint regarding the printer model CanXR 0987, Invoice No: Print/CanXR/6-12-2019

Dear sir,

This is regarding the printer that I bought on Dec 6, 2019. After installation, it worked fine for a few     days. But lately every time a print command is given, it paper gets stuck and the scanning/photocopying option is not working at all. Please send your executive to examine the problem and rectify if at line earliest or get it replaced. I had bought the equipment to take print-outs at home for an urgent project work submission.

I request you to look into the problem urgently and send the expert tomorrow evening by 7 PM. You can send the name and mobile number of the executive at my number. Looking forward to a prompt response.

Thanks and Regards,


(Proprietor,XYX Electronics)

4. Promotion Letters

Promotional content refers to letters written to customers primarily to apprise them of some new development, like opening of a new branch, off­ers an deals extended by them, or new facilities available. They may even be used to inform customers of new schemes or upgradation from a normal to a privileged category, or to off­er promotional discounts.

How to write promotional content:

• Adhere to business English.

• Avoid fancy jargon.

• Text should be to the point and discuss only promotions.

• Personal topics should not be included.

• Subject should be clear and precise.

Sample Promotion letter

XYZ Bank

56 Videocon Towers

Prashant Lok

Mumbai -2

10 December, 20XX

Chief Finance Officer

Arihant Corporation Ltd

Sarojini Nagar

Delhi -38

Dear Sir

Subject: New branch at XYZ Nagar

We are happy to announce the grand opening of our bank’s 100th branch in XYZ Nagar, New Delhi. As a privileged customer, we are pleased to o­er you extra bene‑ts for an account opening in the new branch.

The new branch has three ATM machines and locker facility. In lieu of our long term association, we would not charge you any fees for locker facility.

Kindly visit the branch. Contact details are given below:

87, XYZ Nagar

Just 2 km from main bus stop.

Ph: 011-25590000

Yours sincerely,

Sudhir Kumar

(Branch Manager)

5. Job letter

A cover letter is a letter that accompanies the resume and reflects your knowledge of the employer or trainer. Its purpose is to introduce you to an organization, convey  your  interest  in  the  company  or  a  speci­c  vacancy,  and  draw  attention  to  your  resume.  Since this  letter is often the ­rst contact you have with a prospective employer or trainer, a neat, concise, well written letter will increase your chances of getting an interview.

Sample -1

A – 12F – Block,

C-16/A, Sector – 04


Navi Mumbai – 400705

09 December, 20XX

The Human Resource Department

S.R. Pvt. Ltd.

Andheri East

Mumbai – 400069

Subject: Application for the Post of Trainee Finance

Dear Sir/Ma’am

This is with reference to your advertisement in ‘Hindustan Times’ dated 06 December, 20XX, for the post of Trainee Finance in your organization. I wish to apply for the same.

I am conscientious, punctual and open to learning. I have just completed CA Intermediate from ICAI. I am looking for positions as Trainee (Finance/Tax/Audit) for article ship. If given the opportunity, I am open to learning and prepared to work hard to enrich my knowledge.

I am enclosing my resume herewith for your reference. I shall be available for an interview through online or face to face on any day of your convenience.

I look forward to a positive response!

Your Sincerely,

Prashant Kumar


1. Resume



A – 12F – Block,

C – 16/A, Sector – 04


Navi Mumbai – 400705

Mob: + 91-

Email: prashantkr@gmail.com


  • Hardworking, punctual, strong team player
  • Confident working with computers and technology

Educational Qualifications:

S. No.Examination/ Degree/CourseSubject/ StreamInstitute/ CollegeBoard/ UniversityYear of PassingPercentage Division
1.CA IntermediateFinance, Taxation, AuditingICAI, New DelhiICAI, New DelhiNov 201965%
2.Higher SecondaryCommerceSt. Holly Public School, MumbaiCBSE201487%
3.SecondaryCommerceSt. Marry Public School, MumbaiCBSE201285%

Professional Skills:

  • Finance, Taxation, Auditing.

Intrapersonal Skills:

  • Excellent Communication Skills.
  • Highly organized and efficient.
  • Ability to work independently.
  • Ability to work in team.
  • Proven leadership skills and ability to motivate.

Language Known:

  • English, Hindi, Marathi (Comm.)


  • Reading Novels, Travelling, Interacting with people.

Personal Details:

  • Father’s Name:           XYZ
  • Mother’s Name:         XYZ
  • DoB:                              XYZ
  • Gender:                        Male
  • Nationality:                  XYZ
  • Material Status:           Single/Married


Tripti Sharma                                                                       CA. Sanjay Mishra

Assistant Professor                                                             XYZ Associates,

ABC College of Commerce

XYZ University

Email: xyz@gmail.com                                                       Email:————–@gmail.com

Declaration: I solemnly declare that the above information is correct to the best of my knowledge and belief.

Date: XX December, 20XX

Place: Mumbai.


Sample 2

A – 12F – Block,

C-16/A, Sector – 04


Navi Mumbai – 400705

09 December, 20XX

The Human Resource Department

S.R. Pvt. Ltd.

Andheri East

Mumbai – 400069

Subject: Application for the Post of Production Manager

Dear Sir/Ma’am

With this letter and the attached resume, I would like to express my sincere interest in the Production Manager position you have available. As a highly skilled and successful professional with more than 14 years of experience driving manufacturing success in various settings, I possess a wide range of knowledge and experience that will allow me to make an immediate and positive impact on your company.

My expertise lies in successfully developing and implementing strategic processes, growth-focused procedures, and optimal quality initiatives to maximize operational productivity and efficiency. Through my experience, I have become adept at directing safety training programs and streamlining manufacturing processes, as well as driving materials management, quality assurance, and regulatory compliance. Additionally, my established success in supervising and motivating teams positions me to make a significant contribution to your organization.

The following achievements demonstrate my qualification for this position:

Developing and implementing strategic operational initiatives to propel the achievement of manufacturing goals and objectives and realize exceptional improvements in productivity and efficiency; managing order plans, quality standards, production schedules, and staff recruitment and training.

Managing up to 60 full-time union employees in a paper printing facility, enforcing best-manufacturing practices and continual process improvements to stimulate maximum efficiency.

Realizing consistent enhancements in performance through dynamic analytical, problem-solving, and communication abilities.

My proven dedication to optimizing manufacturing process success and workforce management, along with my superior time management and leadership skills, will contribute immensely to the success of your company.

Thank you for your consideration; I look forward to speaking with you soon.




1. Resume

Sample 3

Examination Hall

23rd Febuary, 20xx

The Headmaster

Lakhimpur Public School,

Lakhimpur (Assam)

Subject: An application for the post of English Teacher


This is in esponse to your advertisement in ‘The Assam Tribune’ dated 10/2/2018 regarding the post of a ‘English Teacher’. I wish to apply for the same post.

I am outgoing, deligent and open to learning and have good command over English speaking. I have all the requisite qualification and experience. I did my graduation from Sri Ram College, Delhi in Commerce stream. I worked as a English teacher in A New High School, Tinsukia for 1 year. I wish to bring difference in the lives of people through education.

As regard my qualification and experience , I am enclosing my bio- data for your kind consideration.           I shall be available for an interview on any day of your convenience.

If selected I shall discharge my duties with utmost devotion and sincerity to your full satisfaction.

Yours sincerely



  1. Testimonials
  2. Bio- data


NAME                               :                Arunava

FATHER NAME                :                S.K Dutta

ADDESS                             :                Examination Hall, Tinsukia College, Tinsukia (Assam)

CONTACT                          :                9987XXXXXX

DATE OF BIRTH                :                xx/xx/1993

NATIONALITY                   :                Indian

RELIGION                          :                Hindu

MARITAL STATUS            :                Unmarried

GENDER                            :                Male

AGE                                   :                26 years




S.NoOrganisationPosition heldFromTo
1A New High School, TinsukiaEnglish Teacher1/11/20XX1/11/20XX


  • Excellent written and verbal communication skills
  • Working knowledge of Tally, Excel, MS-Word.


  • Games secretary of Tinsukia college student Union(2014-2015)
  • Winner of Inter –college Debate Competiton (2014-2015)

Hobby: Interacting with people, reading books, cricket etc.

Language Known: Hindi, English, Bengali, Assamese.


I solemnly declare that all the above information are correct to the best of my knowledge.

Date:    23/02/20XX                                                                                                                        Arunabh

Place:   Tinsukia                                                                                                                              Signature

Sample 4

Examination Hall

12th December, 2017

The Manager

Human Resource Department

ABC Pvt. Ltd


Subject: An application for the post of sales executive


This is in response to your advertisement in ‘The Assam Tribune’ dated 10/12/2017 regarding the post of a sales executive. I wish to apply for the same post.

I am outgoing, deligent and open to learning and have good command over English speaking. I have all the requisite qualification and experience. I did my BBA from IIM, Delhi. I worked as a sales executive  in XML Pvt. Ltd. Guwahati  for 2 year. Having worked extensively in sales profession, I have had the opportunity to work closely with the senior managers to figure out sales strategies and work to achieve them. During my work at XML Pvt. Ltd. Guwahati  , I  had the opportunity to increase sales by 35% during the first year!. Moreover, I possess exceptional presentation skills which would help me to communicate effectively with potential customers.

As regard my qualification and experience , I am enclosing my bio- data for your kind consideration.  I shall be available for an interview on any day of your convenience.

If selected I shall discharge my duties with utmost devotion and sincerity to your full satisfaction.

Yours sincerely





NAME                                :                Firoz/Meena

FATHER NAME                 :                S.K Dutta

ADDESS                             :                Examination Hall, Tinsukia College, Tinsukia (Assam)

CONTACT                          :                9987XXXXXX

DATE OF BIRTH                :                xx/xx/1992

NATIONALITY                   :                Indian

RELIGION                          :                Hindu

MARITAL STATUS            :                Unmarried

GENDER                            :                Male

AGE                                    :                 25 years


20XXBBAIIM, DelhiIIM, Delhi76%       I


S.NoOrganisationPosition heldFromTo
1XML Pvt. Ltd. Guwahati Sales executive1/1/20xx31/12/20xx


  • Excellent written and verbal communication skills
  • Working knowledge of Tally, Excel, MS-Word , Powerpoint


  • Winner of Inter –college Debate Competiton (2011)
  • Best employee of the year 2016 at XML Pvt. Ltd. Guwahati.
  • Developing successful territory plans

Hobby: Interacting with people, reading books,  etc.

Language Known: Hindi, English, Bengali, Assamese.


I solemnly declare that all the above information are correct to the best of my knowledge.

Date:    12/12/20xx                                                                                                                 Firoz/Meena

 Place: Tinsukia                                                                                                                         Signature

Q. You are Arunabh/Mandira. You have seen an advertisement for the post of receptionist in a Multi-National Company in Bangalore. Write a formal application for the post in response to the advertisement.     

Examination Hall

12th December, 20XX

The Manager

Human Resource Department

ABC Pvt. Ltd


Subject: An application for the post of receptionist.


This is in esponse to your advertisement in ‘The Assam Tribune’ dated 10/12/20XX regarding the post of a receptionist. I wish to apply for the same post.

I am outgoing, deligent and open to learning and have good command over English speaking. I have all the requisite qualification and experience. I did my graduation from Sri Ram College, Delhi in Commerce stream. I worked as a receiptionist  in XML Pvt. Ltd. Guwahati  for 1 year. I want to enhance my skills and grow in my career my working in your company as a receptionist.

As regard my qualification and experience , I am enclosing my bio- data for your kind consideration.  I shall be available for an interview on any day of your convenience.

If selected I shall discharge my duties with utmost devotion and sincerity to your full satisfaction.

Yours sincerely



  1. Testimonials
  2. Bio- data


NAME                               :                Arunabh

FATHER NAME                :                S.K Dutta

ADDESS                             :                Examination Hall,

CONTACT                          :                9987XXXXXX

DATE OF BIRTH                :                xx/xx/1993

NATIONALITY                   :                Indian

RELIGION                          :                Hindu

MARITAL STATUS            :                Unmarried

GENDER                            :                Male

AGE                                   :                26 years




S.NoOrganisationPosition heldFromTo
1XML Pvt. Ltd. Guwahati Receptionist1/11/20XX7/11/20XX


  • Excellent written and verbal communication skills
  • Working knowledge of Tally, Excel, MS-Word.


  • Games secretary of Tinsukia college student Union(2014-2015)
  • Winner of Inter –college Debate Competiton (2014-2015)

Hobby: Interacting with people, reading books, cricket etc.

Language Known: Hindi, English, Bengali, Assamese.


I solemnly declare that all the above information are correct to the best of my knowledge.

Date:    12/12/20XX                                                                                                       Arunabh



Sales Letters are part of publicity and advertisement campaign. They perform salesman’s function of educating and persuading customers. Therefore the principles of writing effective sales letters are the same as those of selling goods or services. Before writing sales ledger, the first and foremost requirement is identification of reader’s interests and needs, and the thorough knowledge of product or services being offered. Remember, customer is not buying the product or services; he is buying the benefits (of product or service). Hence, we have to approach the customer by telling him the possible and potential benefits.

A good sales letter, like a successful advertisement, captures the attention of the reader, excites his interest and curiosity and induces him to buy the goods or services offered. The purpose of every sales letter as of every advertisement is to covert the reader into a customer.

Two most effective formula for organizing sales letters are: –

AIDA                                                                                      IDCA

A = Attention                                                                     I = Interest

I = Interest                                                                          D = Desire

D = Desire                                                                           C = Connection

A = Action                                                                           A = Action

If we look at the structure of some effective advertisement in news papers or magazines, we will find that the following steps are taken to construct them:

  • Catching the reader’s attention.
  • Arousing his desire to buy.
  • Convincing him by substantiating the claims.
  • Motivating him to act quickly.

Before designing sales letter, one should keep the above steps of effective advertisements in minds.


The parts of sales letter are as follows:

  1. Introductory Paragraph.
  2. The Body.
  3. Concluding Paragraph.

(a) Introductory Paragraph:

The opening sentence plays a vital role in arresting reader’s attention. It should appeal to his interests, feelings, vanity or social sense.

Some of the popular ways of starting sales letter are: –

  1. Making a striking statement:

Here is a splendid opportunity for you to buy T.V. at reduced prices.

  • Stating a significant fact:

The leading manufacturer of Coolers.

With more than 1 lac subscribers, one of the largest in India.

You need not worry about your old age; just give us Rs. 5,000 today and 20 yeas letter, we shall return              Rs. 50,000 with thanks!

  • Making special appeal to the pride of possession, vanity, etc.:

“Adding in your fair and fabulous look.”

  • Asking a question:

Does your cooking oil give you taste at the cost of your health?

Do you want to drink water absolutely clear and clean?

  • Focusing the central selling point:

Kurlon. If you want to comfortable sleep, please let us know. Kurlon is the other name of comfort.

(b) The Body:

After capturing the reader’s attention in the introductory para, concentrate on arousing his interest in the product or service. For this, develop a central idea that explains the qualities and special features of the product/service and convince the buyer about the potential benefits. If the product is a consumer article, make your appeal on an emotional or psychological plane. If you are selling machine to the businessman, appeal to his knowledge and requirements. In both cases, always substantiate your claims and statements by well established facts, logic or reliable tests.

(c) Concluding Paragraph:

In the concluding para, induce the reader to at within a certain time. Despite the well designing of first two parts, you will not be able to clinch the issue unless you paragraph motivates the reader for desired action. A few examples of concluding sentences are given below:

  1. Please pay visit to your restaurant and relish healthy and hygienic meal.
  2. Hurry up! Send your order before Nov 30, and save Rs. 1,000.
  3. Fill enclosed order form and get the medicine within 30 days.

Writing sales letter needs creativity on the part of writer, so that letter should not only appear attractive, but also appeal to the reader’s emotions. Effective sales letters take time to compose and write, a useful checklist:

While writing sales letter:

  1. Start with capturing the reader’s attention or interest. For this, you may ask him question about saving time or money, getting better service.
  2. Stimulate reader’s desire for product or service in the following paragraph, by describing them in terms of his motivation for comfort, leisure, pleasure, saving of time or money, etc.
  3. Support the desirability of the product by offering evidences from established statistical facts, independent, testing services, or guarantee, etc.
  4. Motivate the reader for action at the end by telling him what exactly he is to do and how to do.

(4) Specimen Sales Letter (In Block Format)

Puneet Watch House Bordoloi Avenue, Dibrugarh Date: Oct, 10, 20…. Dear Friends, Do you want your watch, like other eco-friendly products, spell convenience for you, contribute in conservation of natural resources and reduce pollution for our planet? If so, Citizen presents this by introducing: Eco-Drive Thermo – a watch driven by an advanced ion-lithium, generating its own power by using light energy from any sources. Engineered to eliminate battery changes, the watch gets maximum power from minimal light. This watch runs on a mechanism that generates energy from the differences in temperature on the two watch surfaces. In spite of the path breaking technology, the watches are priced between U.S. $50 – $1000 in international market. Citizen has decided to position itself as leading supplier for the mid price range in high-tech watches in beautiful designs and reasonable prices. Crafted in scratch-resistant, light weight litanium and nickel safe stainless steel, various designs are now available In India starting at Rs. 6,800. When it comes to measuring time and possessing character at the same time, you will find yourself wearing on your wrist a watch that combines form and function into a distinctive personality. We look forward of your visit at Puneet Watch House and are Confident that you will find rich and rare variety of Eco – Drive Thermo of Citizen. Yours Sincerely, Puneet Sharma Proprietor.        
Mohindra & Co. AMC Road, Dibrugarh Date: March, 29, 20…. To Mr. S.P. Sharma, 67, Jalan Nagar, Dibrugarh. Dear Sir, Do you went to drink water absolutely clear, germ free and with improved taste? For your choice, USHA INTERNATIONAL, has launched the most modern water filter in collaboration with BRITA, the German Company: The Usha Brita water guard. A water filter specifically designed for the Indians with German technology is now available in India and we are honoured to be appointed as distributor of the product. Designed under German supervision and ideal for Indian water conditions that Usha Brita is one but three generations ahead of ordinary water filters. Its unique 3 stages process that makes water germ free, clear and tasty, is as follows: The water passes through a micron Prefilter, which removes suspended particles. In next stage a proper contact time with the unique Health Cartridge totally disinfects and filtered water from harmful disease causing bacteria and viruses. Finally a unique taste cartridge absorbs excess chlorine organic pollutants and odor present. In water, thereby enhancing its taste. Water guard has unique look with transparent top container and food grade plastic body. Additionally it is convenient to carry 20 litres capacity water system. Water guard is brought to you by a joint venture between Usha Shriram and Brita System GmbH of Germany. Brita is the world leader in household water filtration system with a vast experience over 30 years and a formidable 85% market shares in Europe, America and rest of the world. We are enclosing an order form and detailed brochure for your reference. Simply fill in the enclosed order form or call our Sales Department at your toll – free number 3568745   Yours cordially, Nitin Bhattacharya Sales Executive.      

(5) Specimen Sales Letter (In Semi Block Format)

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