B.COM, B.A, B.SC 1ST Semester Communicative English notes | Unit – 2 Speaking Skills


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B.COM, B.A , B.SC 1st Semester Communicative English notes ACCORDING TO CBCS PATTERN

Now a days every university is following syllabus based on CBCS Pattern. students are facing difficulties in getting all subjects notes as per CBCS Pattern. In this post i have provided you B.COM 1ST Semester Communicative English notes, B. A 1ST Semester Communicative English notes, B.SC 1ST Semester Communicative English notes. Hope you like it. Do share with your friends so they can also get the notes of new cbcs pattern



B.COM, B.A, B.SC 1ST Semester Communicative English notes | Unit – 3 Reading and understanding


Definition of Monologue:

The word monologue originates in the Greek word, ‘monos’, which means alone and the word, ’logos’, which means speech. Monologue is a speech given by one person to express his or her thoughts aloud. This speech will have one or more listeners, and it will be a one sided speech, with only one person speaking. This is different from a conversation or a dialogue, where there are two or more speakers. Monologues are often found in mediums of mass communication like films, plays, novels, drama and poetry.

An example of monologue is the poem, ’My Last Duchess’ by Robert Browning.  In the film, ‘Lagaan’, the character of Aamir Khan urges the villagers, in a monologue, to take up the challenge of playing the cricket match and urges them to hope and dream for the sake of their families.


Characterstics of a good monologue 

1. Brief

Monologue should be as brief as possible it is generally a brief speech of 2 minutes being presented by a single character

2. Theme

There must be a theme of a monologue and a character relating to that theme this is necessary to establish a connection with the audience

3. Objective

There must be a clear objective Behind every monologue for it to be impactful and the presenter must be clear about the objective

4. Legal structure 

Every monologue has a logical structure that is an introduction , a body  and a conclusion to make the audience understand the monologue. The introduction must be captivating and attract the the attention of the listener.

5. Imagined situation

In monologue the president speak to an imagined situation/person and not to a lifeless camera or to the person conducting the audition

Types of monologue

There are three types of monologue:

1. Dramatic monologue :

It refers to a speech given by a character directly to the audience or another character with the purpose of revealing specific intention of his action. It can be formal, informal, funny or serious.

2. Soliloguy:

Soliloquy is the act of speaking one’s thoughts aloud, to oneself, when alone, without any one else present. Soliloquies are often seen in plays. It allows the audience or the readers to know the innermost thoughts of the character.

A famous example of soliloquy is Hamlet’s ‘To be or not to be’ speech from the play ’Hamlet’.

3. Internal monologue

Internal monologue also called self talk ,inner speech, inner discourse or internal discourse. Inner voice is thinking in words. It also refers to the semi constant internal monologue one has with oneself at conscious or semi conscious level.

Difference between Monologue and Soliloquy:

Both Monologue and Soliloquy are speeches presented by single characters. However, there is one major difference between these two forms of verbal communication. A monologue has one or more listeners, whereas soliloquy has no listener. It is not meant to be heard by the other characters. In a soliloquy the person or character voices his or her thoughts aloud without addressing the talk to another person.

Group Discussion

A Group Discussion is a discussion among a group of people on a topic given to them, beforehand for certain duration of time. It is commonly used as a tool of elimination and selection, for choosing a few candidates from among many. It is a good way to assess the behaviour and attitude of the participants apart from assessing their knowledge and communication skills.

Group discussion is mostly unstructured. That is, every single step is not planned in advance. Each candidate is not given a time limit for speaking. Similarly, the order of speaking, that is, who will speak first and who will speak last is not fixed in advance. The candidates have to decide how to conduct the group discussion. The selectors see how the group takes shape, and who contributes most to it. They also judge the knowledge of each candidate, time management, leadership quality, behaviour, etc.

Skills Required for Participating in a Group Discussion

A group discussion needs preparation and there are several skills required to be effective in a Group Discussion. The skills required for participating in a Group Discussion are:

  1.  Team skill: Team skills include team work and team building. Organizations require people who work well with clients, colleagues, authorities and others to ensure efficient completion of tasks and a mutually satisfying work environment. Team work is required for almost every industry.
  2. Reasoning: Reasoning is the ability to support what you say with structured reason and evidence, to make decisions and valid inferences. Reasoning skills determine how people understand, evaluate and accept claims and arguments. It shows the ability to comprehend the essence of the topic and put forward a compelling argument.  
  3. Leadership: Leaders have the ability to influence others with their speech and actions. Leadership implies working with the team without thinking of individual glory and striving to achieve the objective together.
  4. Flexibility: Flexibility is an important personality trait required in a Group Discussion. One should be firm but not stubborn. Having an inflexible point of view creates an impression of stubbornness. One should be willing to change one’s opinion when there are compelling reasons to do so.
  5. Assertiveness: Assertiveness is speaking firmly and with the right measure of confidence. A participant should be assertive and not aggressive, while being part of a discussion. Aggression is hostile and offensive behaviour, which is not acceptable.
  6. Initiative: It is good to take initiative and begin the discussion, provided one is well prepared for it.
  7. Creativity: Organizations are on the lookout for creative people, who have new ideas, different perspectives and out of the box thinking. Creative people can bring in a fresh line of thought to the group discussion.
  8. Listening: It involves paying full attention to what is being said. This is normally is not done, as the participants are preoccupied with their own thoughts or contemplating on what to say when their turn to speak comes.
  9. Awareness: One should be aware of the topic and should be able to speak in a knowledgeable way about it. The best of communication skills will fail in the absence of knowledge and information about the topic under discussion.
  10. Communication Skills: It is said that knowledge without communication skills is futile. One should be able to express their ideas, with clarity, in a way that is understood by others. Good communication skills are a crucial requirement for group discussion.

Purposes/Objectives of group discussion:

Group discussion actually detail the area of approach to a problem or topic. A fruitful group discussion should include the following objectives:

1. Suggestions: Advice and ideas, together with suggestions, they form the core heart of a group discussion. It is through these tools that a meaningful and practically implementable solution can be reached. Intermingling of these suggestions give rise to a new ones, creating a space for best possible output.

2. Wide approach: Group discussion helps to provide wide approach to any matter under consideration, as it include members from a large number of different sections of a particular business organisation. The beauty of entire process is in the area of span it can give to a problem’s redressal.

3. Decision Making: Group discussion should be able to justify itself as a tool for rational evaluation of a problem and thereon reach to a suitable decisions, based on erstwhile suggestions made by the members. It also makes it easier for the leader to able to take even the toughest of decision with an ease, because by group discussion he can know what is supported by other members of the organisation.

4. Exchange of ideas: Group discussion should also be able to tap the working of every mind, engaged in the process, by the exchange of ideas put forth.

5. Productive activity: Group discussion is always supposed to be a productive activity in a business concern. It always a method which helps to procure the best possible decision for a concern.

 Dos and Don’ts  in a Group Discussion                                                        

There are several things which are desirable in a group discussion and should be done in order to effectively participate. Some of these are:

  1. Initiate the discussion, only if you are well prepared, otherwise it is better to wait till someone else begins the discussion. Initiating is imparting an overall direction to the discussion and panning out an agenda for the group. 
  2. Maintain eye contact with others during the discussion.
  3. Communicate with clarity in an audible voice.
  4. Face counter arguments gracefully.
  5. Acknowledge the previous speaker as discussion is an action reaction interface.
  6. It is important to follow the discussion and listen attentively to what is being said.
  7.  Support your viewpoint with facts and examples to add conviction to what you say.
  8. Be a team player with an ability to balance individuality and group performance.
  9. Be respectful and polite to all other participants in the course of the discussion.
  10. Present your views calmly and in a balanced manner.

There are things which should not be practised in the course of a discussion. Some of the Don’ts in a group discussion are:

  1. Don’t speak just for the sake of speaking without a plan or structure.
  2. Don’t be arrogant or aggressive as this leads to a negative image being projected.
  3. Don’t show a lack of interest or enthusiasm towards the topic or the discussion.
  4. Don’t look at the clock or your watch continuously.
  5. Don’t ask for permission to speak. Join the discussion at an opportune moment.
  6. Don’t interrupt other speakers.
  7. Don’t criticise or pass personal comments on other participants or the organisers of the debate.
  8. Don’t be restless and fidgety in your behaviour. Be mindful of your body language.
  9. Don’t seek sympathy or give personal excuses for not being able to contribute effectively to the discussion.
  10. Don’t whisper or talk in private to other participants when the discussion is in progress.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Group Discussion


Group discussion provides the following advantages:

1. Group discussion helps to assess the natural leadership qualities of different persons.

2. Group discussion helps to generate more useful ideas and information.

3. Group discussion leads to matured and sound decision-making

4. Group discussion increases the commitment of members for a particular decision.


Group discussion suffers from following disadvantages:

1. In short span of time, it is difficult to assess candidate’s natural leadership qualities. With group discussion, his or her eloquence of speech and knowledge of subject can be evaluated. But for effective leaders, there are lot many qualities like dedication, devotion, ability to work tirelessly etc. These qualities cannot be assessed in very short duration.

2. In group discussion (where it is used for group decision making), it is possible that some of the members whose voice has not been heard, may feel resentment.

3. Sometimes it happen that bad decisions are taken at group because of ‘mob-mentality of the members or ‘mass unconsciousness’.

Public Speaking

Public speaking is the process or act of performing a speech to a live audience. Public speaking is commonly understood as formal, face-to-face speaking of a single person to a group of listeners. Traditionally, public speaking was considered to be a part of the art of persuasion.

Types of Public Speaking

1.Ceremonial Speaking

Most people will give some sort of ceremonial speech during their lifetime. These speeches mark special occasions. They are common at weddings, graduations and funerals — as well as large birthday celebrations and office holiday parties. Ceremonial speaking typically involves a toast and is personal with an intimate emotional connection to people hearing it.

2.Demonstrative Speaking

Science demonstrations and role playing are types of demonstrative speaking. This type of public speaking requires being able to speak clearly and concisely to describe actions and to perform those actions while speaking. A demonstrative speaker may explain the process behind generating power while cycling to power a toaster, for example. The idea behind demonstrative speaking is that the audience members leave with the knowledge about how to do something.

3. Informative Speaking

With informative speaking, the speaker is trying simply to explain a concept to the audience members. College lecture courses involve informative speaking as do industry conferences and public officials sharing vital information. In this type of speaking, the information is what is important. The speaker is not trying to get others to agree with him or to show them how to do something for themselves. Rather he is disseminating vital information.

4. Persuasive Speaking

Persuasive speaking tends to be the most glitzy. Politicians, lawyers and clergy members use persuasive speaking. This type of speaking requires practicing voice inflections and nuances of language that will convince the audience members of a certain viewpoint. The persuasive speaker has a stake in the outcome of the speech. Politicians, for instance, may want votes or a groundswell of support for a pet project, while lawyers are trying to convince a jury of their position — and clergy members are trying to win others over to their faith. The persuasive speaker uses emotional appeals and strong language in speeches.

How to prepare a good speech

Following points should be kept in mind while preparing speech

1. Objective

While preparing, the first thing that should cross your mind is the objective of your speech. Is it a conversation drill, a speaking task, a competition or an interaction? Clarity of the objective of speaking is a must.

2. Audience

The next important component is the audience whom are you speaking to. Is it your class or a larger audience comprising of teachers and all students of your college? Would the gathering be small or large? Would they be your fellow students or academicians as well? Experts or non-experts? Will you be speaking from a podium or stage? The content of your speech will depend to a large extent on the audience before whom you will be delivering your speech.

3.Venue and Logistics

The third aspect that you need to consider is the venue or place where you would be delivering the speech. It is going to be your classroom or the college auditorium? What is the technical aid available to you – the logistics like Mic System, projector, laptop etc. need to be ascertained. The seating arrangement of the speakers and the audience is also very important, so take a brief review of the facilities and equipments provided.

4. Time

 Fourthly it is very important to know the time limit. What is the time allotted to you and how are you placed in the sequence of speakers. Would you be making the opening remarks or are to speak just before or after lunch when the audience is hungry or sleep?. Accordingly you need to intersperse your speech with anecdotes and activities that break the monotony.

5. Formal or informal set-up

Consider the method that you will adopt for your speech. Is it a formal or informal occasion?. Would you be using humour and anecdotes to make your speech effective or is your tone going to be sober and serious. Next, provide a title to your work. It helps to retain focus and you will not deviate from the subject. Gather suitable visual aids to supplement your content.

6. Structure

 It is important to provide a structure that depicts logical development of thought. The following flow chart will help you to plan your speech.

7. Keep key notes handy

Spontaneity is the key to good speaking. If you just read from a paper in hand it will send your audience to sleep. If key points are close at hand they help you to keep focus and you can ensure you follow the order of your speech.

8. Practice

Rehearsing is essential to success. Familiarity with the words used in your speech will prevent you from fumbling during your presentation. Difficult pronunciation should be practiced over and over again. Make necessary modifications if you identify weaknesses in your speech.

9. Effective Delivery

Build a warm rapport with the audience. This will relax you and help you overcome nervousness. Maintain eye contact with audience. Introduction is important. Speaking slowly and calmly will help you to settle down.

10. Body language

Body language is a positive, powerful tool to help you speak effectively. Paralanguage conveys more than words. The way you talk, the gestures you make, your eye :-contact speak volumes about your personality. In fact your body speaks to your audience even before you open your mouth. Your dressing sense, your hair cut, your walk to the podium – all leave an impression on the audience.

11. Speed Intonation, Loudness

our Voice should be clearly audible to the audience yet not shrieky. Try to vary the tons to make your speech interesting and to add variety to the content. Speed can be varied according to the content, as well you can choose to speed through easy or repetitive material and slower the pace for more complex things which need further elaboration and explanation Silence too, is a great tool to capture audience attention. Pitch of your voice and also be used to add or remove emphasis while speaking.

12. Language

The golden rule to a successful speech is to keep the language simple and clear. Use short words and sentences and avoid jargon. It only confuses the audience. State concrete facts rather than talking abstractly and vaguely. Active verbs should be preferred over passive verbs as they are more impactful and easier to understand.

13. Signposting

Just as while driving signposts help us to gain a sense of direction and makes it easy to navigate the roads, to help the audience avoid getting lost in a speech, it is a good idea to recap frequently. This helps the audience to know where they are. This technique is called signposting or signaling. The golden rule of communication is

“Say what you are going to say, say it, then say what you have just said”

13. Audience Reaction/Questions

Having summed up your speech, if the protocol demands you to take questions, invite them one by one. You can choose to restrict the number of questions. Avoid getting irritated and maintain poise even if you are faced with difficult questions. Be polite and courteous.

Characteristics and importance of a good speech:

A good speech must bear the following characteristics.

  1. Clarity: A good speech should be clear to the audience or listener. A speech must be successful to attain its objective by making a clear expression.
  2. Informal talk: A good speech should be like a chat between two intimate friends. There should be perfect contact between speaker and audience.
  3. Live and concrete: A good speech is lived in nature and contains concrete facts which are easy to understand.
  4. Short: Audience on an average cannot concentrate more than fifteen to twenty minutes. So, speech should not be longer than this unless the audience wants more.
  5. Interesting: A good speech is an interesting one which involves quotations, anecdotes and humor. Quotations should be original and anecdote should be new and brief. Whereas humors should be genteel with good taste.
  6. Audience oriented: A good speech is always audience oriented. It considers the age, sex, religion, social and economic view of the listener and makes it communicative.
  7. Beside the above criteria a good speech also bears quality like relevance of facts, timely presentation and objective orientation.


Making presentation is an art that cannot be acquired overnight. One has to spend a lot of time practicing, reviewing and reading and at times even go in for specialized coaching and training to master this art. Simply reading books on communication skills from cover to cover will yield no result until you spend a lot of time and effort to absorb and apply you knowledge. If you want to differentiate yourself at work by becoming a good presente! there is a simple structure that you need to adhere to.

How to give an effective presentation

1. Content: Content is king. Content of your presentation counts a lot because seeing is believing so work hard on your content.

2. Creditibility: Creditibolity counts while deliveryinga presentation so don’t play around with facts and figures.

3. Customize: Your presentation must be customized to suit your audience so that it grabs their attention.

Besides the above three components i.e. “content’, ‘credibility’, ‘cutomize other factors that help in delivering an effective presentation are:

i. Variety: Break up your presentation with questions and brain storming sessions.

ii. Keep audience interested: Let you presentation be interactive and allow space for audience participation- change your presentation from a sedative to a stimulant.

iii. Have quality question/Answer sessions: The type of questions asked are a clear indication of how well your presentation skills have worked.

iv. Be an expert in your topic: Read, rescarch, review and explore all that is related to your topic. Keep yourself updated.

V. Rehearse your presentation several times to avoid slips and last minute jitters.

vi. Tell a story, share an anecdote — it makes a presentation memorable and personalized. vii. Learn and practice to overcome nervousness and fear.

viii. Know the art of dealing with difficult audience.

Effective Communication

Effective communication is about more than just exchanging information. It’s about understanding the emotion and intentions behind the information. As well as being able to clearly convey a message, you need to also listen in a way that gains the full meaning of what’s being said and makes the other person feel heard and understood.

‘Effective communication is 20% of what you and 80% of how you feel about what you know’-Jim Rohn

Barriers of Communication:

Communication is the process of passing information and understanding from one person to another, anything that obstructs the free flow of communication is referred to us Barrier of communication. E.g. Problem in encoding and decoding, wrong or defective communication channel, noise in the channel etc. Barrier may arise at any of the following level:

  1. Sender oriented,
  2. Receiver oriented

Sender-oriented barriers could be voluntary or involuntary. At any cost, efforts should be made on the part of the sender to identify and remove them. As the sender is the originator of communication, he should be extremely careful not to erect barriers. If his interaction gives rise to or indicates that there are barriers, the communication comes to a grinding halt. Some of the barriers that are sender-oriented are as follows:

Receiver can also have some barriers in the course of the interaction. Although his role in the initial phase is passive, he becomes active when he starts assimilating and absorbing the information. He is equally to blame if the situation goes awry and communication comes to a stop, or there is miscommunication. Some of the barriers emanating from the side of the receiver are as follows:

Types of Barriers in communication: The barriers to communication in an organization may be broadly categorized into following groups:

1. Physical barriers (RECEIVER’S ORIENTED)

2. Socio- psychological or personal barriers (RECEIVER’S ORIENTED)

3. Organizational barriers (SENDER’S ORIENTED)

4. Semantic barriers (SENDER’S ORIENTED)

5. Mechanical barriers (SENDER’S ORIENTED)

However, such a classification does not suggest that these are mutually exclusive. Rather, it is helpful in understanding the nature of communication barriers.

1. Physical Barriers: There are the environmental factors that also obstruct or reduces the sending and receiving of communication, such as physical distance distracting noises and other interferences difficulty arises in communicating a message, when the physical distance increases:-

Noise: Noise is first and foremost barrier to effective communication. Noise may be caused by machines, equipment, communication device, disturbances in the time of transmission etc. noise also encompasses many other factors such as the sender may use ambiguous or confusing signal. The receiver may misinterpret the message. Thus communication is likely to be spoilt due to noise.

Time and distance: Time and distance also acts as a barrier in smooth flow of communication. Distance between the sender and receiver acts as a hurdle. Although this barrier can be overcome by technology but still in case of breakdown, this exists. Different timing of shifts at workplace also act as barriers in imparting on vital information.

2. Socio-psychological or personal Barriers: There are certain socio psychological factors which restrict the free flow of communication. They are the attitude and opinions, status consciousness, ones relations with fellow workers, seniors, and junior’s etc. family background. These restrict participative communication:

I. Motives, attitudes, judgments, emotions, and social values of people from the part of the personal barriers. Psychological distance is also developed with this.

II. Individual Differences: There are differences in the motives, attitudes and sentiments of the people. So this causes problems in encoding and decoding other’s sentiments, attitudes and motives.

III. Differences in interest: The interest of people also differs. A problem may be important for one person but may not carry weight for another. The ideas, question, attitudes, feelings etc of other party may represent an obstacle to one’s own personal goal.

IV. Division of People: Communication is ideas and viewpoint also gets affected by the division of people into classes, castes and communities.

V. Difference of viewpoints: Communication suffers when there are differences in view point of the different people.

VI. Lack of planning: Good communication never happens but has to be planned. When people take it lightly and communicate without planning it turns into miscommunication or mal communication.

VII. Cultural barriers: Due to difference in the cultural background the same word, phrases, symbols, actions etc. may mean different to different group of people. Mis understanding may take place due to this.

3. Organizational Barriers: Organisational barriers arise due to defects in the organization structure and the communication system of an organization:

I. Hierarchical distance: Downward communication promotes hierarchical distance. The chances of information being filtered are more at this structure, because there are several layers. Information received from the top may not reach at bottom in the same shape. The information gets coloured which brings hierarchical distance.

II. Diversion: Diversion of information is also one of the causes which brings barrier to communication process. For example sometimes a manager diverts the information meant for one person or group to another.

III. Colouring: Information are also coloured by the manager intentionally with a view to twist the situation in their favour. For example, an office may quote his subordinate wrongly, to spoil his career or his chance of promotion or his image in the eyes of the boss.

IV. Status barriers: Status is a barrier of communication in a formal organization. Organizational interaction and communication are influenced by the status and the expectations.

V. Goal conflicts: Goal conflict acts as communication reducers. Different goal lead to bifurcation of interest. Due to this communication suffers.

4. Semantic Barriers: Semantic means the relationships of signs of their reference. Semantic barrier arises from the disadvantages of the symbolic system. Symbols have got number of meaning and one has to choose any one of them according to the requirement of communication. Symbol or the language is the most important tool of communication which has to be used very carefully:-

I. Words with different meaning: Some words convey more than one meaning. When the receiver assigns a different meaning to a word than what the sender intended, there occurs miscommunication.

II. Denotation and connotation: Words have two types of meaning = Denotation and connotation. Denotation is the literal meaning of the words connotation are the suggestive meaning of the words. Connotation is the suggestive meanings of the words. Connotation may be positive or negative.

III. Offensive style of communication: Badly expressed messages lose their impact. Offensive style of communication leads to communication breakdown causing loss of time and money.

IV. Wrong assumptions: Communication should not be based on assumption as it may lead to wrong interpretation. All possible efforts should be made to clarify assumptions.

V. Selective perception: many a time the message is decoded by the receiver in a way which may be selective. In other words most of the receivers protect their own interest and expectations leading to a particular type of feedback which becomes a communication problem.

5. Mechanical Barriers: Mechanical barriers include inadequate arrangement for transmission of news, facts and figures. Example poor office layout and defective procedure and the use of wrong media led to poor communication.

I. Information overload: Excess of communication is called information overload. Brevity is the soul of communication. The receiver cannot comprehend and absorb beyond his mental capacity. His mind will remain closed for the excess part of the communication. Therefore one should be brief and to the point.

II. Loss of transmission: When messages are transmitted from person to person they are filtered. In other words they are diluted and distorted on the way. In oral communication about 30% of the information is lost in each transmission.

Steps to overcome the barriers of communication in an organization

In order to remove barriers to communication an open door communication policy should be prepared and followed by managers at all levels. The superiors in the organization must create an atmosphere of confidence and trust in the organization so that the credibility gap may be narrowed down. Major efforts in this direction are:

  1. Two-way communication: The organization’s communication policy should provide for a two-way traffic in communication upwards and downwards. It brings two minds closer and improves understanding between the two parties the sender and the receiver. There should be no communication gap.
  2. Strengthening Communication Network: The communication network should be strengthened to make communication effective. For this purpose the procedure of communication should be simplified, layers in downward communication should be reduced to the minimum possible. Decentralization and delegation of authority should be encouraged to make information communication more efficient.
  3. Promoting Participative Approach: The management should promote the participative approach in management. The subordinates should be invited to participate in the decision making process. It should seek cooperation from the subordinates and reduce communication barriers.
  4. Appropriate Language: In communication certain symbols are used. Such symbols may be in the form of words, pictures and actions. If words are used, the language should be simple and easily comprehensible to the subordinates. Technical and multi-syllable words should, as far as possible be avoided. The sender must use the language with which the receiver is familiar.
  5. Credibility in Communication: One criterion of effective communication is credibility. The subordinates obey the orders of their superior because they have demonstrated through their actions that they are trustworthy. They must practice whatever they say. The superior must also maintain his trust worthiness. If the superior is trusted by the subordinates, communication will be effective.
  6. Good Listening: A communicator must be a good listener too. A good manager gives his subordinates a chance to speak freely and express their feelings well before him. The manager also gets some useful information for further communication and can also have a better understanding of the subordinates needs, demands etc.
  7. Selecting on Effective Communication Channel: To be effective the communication should be sent to the receiver through an effective channel. By effective channel mean that the message reaches its destination in time to the right person and without any distortion, filtering or omission.
  8. Preventing Predictable Decision Making Errors: Predictable errors in decision making are preventable errors. And a few simple techniques can help in clear of the most common wrong turns in decision making.

Meaning of Interview

An interview means a face to face interaction between the interviewer and the candidate/candidates so as to obtain desired information from him/them. It can also be defined as a way of exchanging meanings between individuals by using a common set of symbols. Interviews generally need a preparation.

According to Gary Dessler, “An interview is a procedure designed to obtain information from a person’s oral response to oral inquiries.”

According to Thill and Bovee, “An interview is any planed conversation with a specific purpose involving two or more people”.

So, an interview is formal meetings between two people (the interviewer and the interviewee) where questions are asked by the interviewer to obtain information, qualities, attitudes, wishes etc. Form the interviewee.

Types of interviews: There are many types of interviews that an organization can arrange. It depends on the objectives of taking the interview. Some important types of interviews are stated below:

  1. Personal interviews: Personal interviews include Selection of the employees, Promotion of the employees and Retirement and resignation of the employees. This type of interview is designed to obtain information through discussion and observation about how well the interviewer will perform on the job.
  2. Evaluation interviews: The interviews which take place annually to review the progress of the interviewee are called the evaluation interviews. Naturally, it is occurring between superiors and subordinates. The main objective of this interview is to find out the strengths and weaknesses of the employees.
  3. Persuasive interviews: This type of interview is designed to sell someone a product or an idea. When a sales representative talk with a target buyer, persuasion takes the form of convincing the target that the product or idea meets a need.
  4. Structured interviews: Structured interviews tend to follow formal procedures; the interviewer follows a predetermined agenda or questions.
  5. Unstructured interviews: When the interview does not follow the formal rules or procedures. It is called an unstructured interview. The discussion will probably be free flowing and may shift rapidly form on subject to another depending on the interests of the interviewee and the interviewer.
  6. Counseling interviews: This may be held to find out what has been troubling the workers and why someone has not been working.
  7. Disciplinary interviews: Disciplinary interviews are occurring when an employee has been accused of breaching the organization’s rules and procedures.
  8. Stress interviews: It is designed to place the interviewee in a stress situation in order to observe the interviewees reaction.
  9. Public interviews: These include political parties’ radio-television and newspaper.
  10. Informal or conversational interview: In the conversational interview, no predetermined questions are asked, in order to remain as open and adaptable a possible to the interviewee’s nature and priorities; during the interview the interviewer “goes with the flow”.

Importance of Interview

Interview plays a very important role in interpersonal communication, since it is between two persons or parties i.e. interviewer and interviewer, its importance is discussed with respect to both aspects.

a) From Interviewer Point of View: Interview has following importance for the interviewer.

1. To match the applicant and the job: A job has specific requirement. Every person is not suitable for every kind of job, so the interviews enable the interviewer to match the applicant and the job requirement. This matching may be in the following way.

(a) Matching Qualification: A candidate having a master’s degree does not mean that he has the knowledge of master level. Asking questions about the field of candidate enables the interviewer to know as to how much knowledge the candidate has acquired.

(b) Matching Candidate Ability: Different candidates have different abilities. The interview helps know the abilities of every candidate according to the job requirement.

(c) Other Areas: Candidate’s conduct, attitude, confidence, communication skill and other areas are expressed means of interviewers.

2. To develop the image of organization: Another secondary role of interviews is to establish a good image of an organization before candidate and ultimately before the market.

b) From Interviewee Point of View: An interview is equally important for interviewers as it’s for interview. This importance is enumerated as follows.

1. To have information: An interviewee can have different information about the organization. This information might be about the organization nature of job salary rule and regulations, etc.

2. To have a suitable job: Interview helps the candidate know about the job. In this way, he / she can choose the best one of him / her.

General consideration of an Interviewer before conducting interview:

Giving an interview is equally important as taking interview, one has to be very careful while giving an interview, there are following guidelines in general which could enable an interviewer to conduct a good and effective interview.

a) Preparation

b) Conduct during interview

c) Evaluation

a) Preparation: The interviewer should prepare himself before the interview; the following points are to be considered in this regard.

1. Reading applicant’s Resume: There is much information provider in his resume so the resume should be read in detail. So as to asks the question in the perspective of resume.

2. Being aware of state Regulation: There are many policies and rules and regulation made by a state about the recruitment of employees. The interviewer should be aware of them so as to avoid any prospective lawsuit.

3. Planning the questions: The interviewer should plan the pattern of question, the number of question types length duration etc. should be clear in the mind of interviewer.

4. Omitting personal bias: There might be many biases in the minds of interviewer about the candidates. In order to make the interviewee fair he should avoid these biases.

b) Conduct during the interview: Having prepared for the interview the interviewer should consider the following points during interview.

1. Letting the candidate speak: The main objective of interview is to have the information from the candidate as much as possible, so interviewer should let the candidate speak as much as possible.

2. Using the language of candidate: If there is no restoration regarding the language such a language should be used in which the candidate feels easy and free.

3. Avoiding arguing with the candidate: The purpose of interview is to evaluate the candidate not to solve a dispute, so argumentation with the candidate should be avoided.

4. Not interrupting the candidate: The candidate is already under a lot of pressure. So the candidate should not be interrupted.

5. Controlling the emotions: During the interview there are many stages on which the interviewers might get emotional. This may cause failures to the interview process.

6. Establishing eye contact: In order to be confident and the put the candidate at case, the interviewer should establish an eye contact with the candidate.

7. Using body language: Use of body language can play an important to make the question clear the candidate.

8. Asking open ended questions instantly: The close or dead ended questions are not very useful to acquire more information. So open-ended question should be asked as much as possible.

c) Evaluation: After the interview the last step is to evaluate the interviewee. For this purpose there are following points which should be given importance.

1. No personal bias: There might be many candidates with whom the interviewer may have personal bias. This should be avoided in any case so as to hire the potential people.

2. Clear cut standards: The interviewer should try to establish a clear-cut standard for evaluation such as point system.

Interviewee’s preparation for the interview

Before commence of Interview

  1. The interviewee should be dressed formally, and not casually. Have a pleasing appearance as the candidate’s personality is a significant part of the communication.
  2. Always carry an extra CV, a notepad to write on, a pen, and all essential things required in an interview.
  3. Practice, practice and practice in advance. Prepare and rehearse for the unexpected also.
  4. Research a lot about the organization for which you are being interviewed.
  5. Be punctual. Try reaching before time for the job interview.
  6. Know the habits and hobbies of interviewer and think over them thoroughly.
  7. Anticipate the possible questions related with the job and subject and prepare them properly.
  8. Regain confidence before entering the interview room

Interviewee’s conduct during interview

  • Greet the interview board with polite wish.
  • Sit in natural way when asked to sit.
  • Be courteous and sophisticated during an interview.
  • Avoid looking funny or too serious.
  • Just “be yourself”. Do not boast about yourself. The interviewer is smart enough to judge the candidate’s intelligence and aptness for the job.
  • Pay attention to the questions asked by interviewer and respond them naturally and consciously.
  • Answer in brief and to the point.
  • Answer the questions specifically, truly and undoubtedly. If you do not know, admit it politely.
  • Do not indulge in a fight or argument with the interviewer.
  • Do not make negative statements or comments about your past employer.
  • Your body language should be positive during the interview, i.e., maintain an eye-to-eye contact with the interviewer, sit in well balanced and confident posture, do not lean on the table, do not yawn, smile when appropriate, etc.
  • Thank the interviewers at the end and move out the interview room in confident manner.
  • As soon as the interview gets over, pen down the name of the interviewer, your strengths and weaknesses, answers to questions raised by you during the interview and the feedback of the interviewer.

Mock Interview

A Mock Interview is a practice interview designed to simulate a real job interview as closely as possible.  Mock interviews are one of the best ways to improve interview skills and prepare for an interview.  The practice gained in a mock interview is invaluable. Mock interviews can be completed in person, by phone or by video conference.  All three methods work well.  The key to success in a mock interview is recreating the interview experience as much as possible.

Purposes/Objectives of mock interview

  1. Practicing for actual interview.
  2. Describes the manner of actual interview.
  3. Develops the strategy of interview.
  4. Minimize worry and anxiety prior to actual interview.
  5. Aims at making firms impression effective.
  6. Practicing communicating of one’s skill clearly.

Importance/Significance of Mock Interview

Mock interviews enable candidates to have a fair idea about the sort of things they are going to experience at actual interviews, and prepare them how accurately they can deal with it. Generally these interviews are organized by career services where a career coach trains the students and recent alumni for the new opportunities they can explore by being perfect at the actual interview sessions. But, accuracy does not come automatically. It needs a thorough practice and guidance from an expert trainer. Mock interviews do just the exact thing with the candidates to bring them to perfection and boost their confidence.

Mock interviews help candidates reduce their anxiety about interviewing by training them for the typical interview questions. The person conducting the mock interview session is most likely an experienced interviewer and a skilled trainer, who can guide candidates whether or not their responses are suitable, along with providing them the most appropriate set of response they should practice. In the process the candidates gain their confidence by having the knowledge about their strengths and shortcomings. No one is perfect enough to execute everything faultlessly, so the purpose of these mock interviews is to point out one’s weaknesses and guide them to bring perfection by rectifying those.

Mock interviews also prepare job seekers for behavioral-based issues in an interview. In a real interview the behavioral standard is judged much by the interviewee’s body language. So, it is very important to know how one can appear best by employing those standard set of gestures. From the moment of entry in the interview room everything about the posture will be marked minutely. Therefore, one needs to know very accurately about what the things are that one should do and what not. Right from the way of stepping into the room, greetings to the panelists, way of looking at them, style of sitting and manner of responding to them – everything counts on. And mock interview sessions are the best ways to gather knowledge about all these little details which are too important to overlook.

16 Questions which are asked normally during mock interview:

The biggest style decision in a mock interview deals with follow up questions.  Some interviewers foster a dialog with a lot of follow up questions, while others take the answer from the job seeker and move on to the next question.  In most cases, candidates struggle more when they are not asked follow up questions, but each job seeker is different.  The mock interview should mimic the style of the upcoming interview if possible.  Questions which are asked during mock interview:

What was the toughest decision you had to make?

Why do you want to work for this organisation?

Why should we employ you?

If we hire you, what changes would you make?

Can you offer a career path?

What are you greatest strengths?

What are you greatest weakness?

What didn’t you like about your previous jobs you have held?

How do you spend your leisure time?

Are there weakness in your education or experience?

Where do you want to five years from now?

What are your salary expectations?

What would you do if your computer broke down during an audit?

What type of position you interested in?

Tell me something about yourself.

Do you have any questions about the organisation or job?

Definition of Dialogue

A dialogue is a literary technique in which writers employ two or more characters to be engaged in conversation with one another. In literature, it is a conversational passage, or a spoken or written exchange of conversation in a group, or between two persons directed towards a particular subject. The use of dialogues can be seen back in classical literature, especially in Plato’s Republic. Several other philosophers also used this technique for rhetorical and argumentative purposes. Generally, it makes a literary work enjoyable and lively.

Types of Dialogue

There are two types of dialogue in literature:

  • Inner Dialogue – In inner dialogue, the characters speak to themselves and reveal their personalities. To use inner dialogue, writers employ literary techniques like stream of consciousness or dramatic monologue. We often find such dialogues in the works of James Joyce, Virginia Wolf, and William Faulkner.
  • Outer Dialogue – Outer dialogue is a simple conversation between two characters, used in almost all types of fictional works.

Examples of dialogue writing

Q1.Sameer had to catch a train to go to attend an interview in Chandigarh, but he reached the stationlate due to traffic jam on roads and so he could not buy a ticket and boarded the train as the train was about to leave. Write a dialogue between Sameer and the ticket-checker.


Ticket Checker : Will you please show me your ticket?

Sameer: I am sorry, I don’t have one.

Ticket Checker: Travelling without ticket? Don’t you know that it is a crime?

Sameer: Yes sir, I do know that. But you see when I reached the station, the train was about to leave and so I had to board the train without a ticket. Won’t you make me a ticket, please?

Ticket Checker: Yes I can make a ticket, but you have to pay a fine of Rs. Mil- along with the fare.

Sameer: No problem sir, here is the money.

Ticket Checker:That’s all right, but be careful in future.

Sameer: I will, sir.Definitely.

Q2.Mr. Mehta wanted to buy a suitable family car. So, one fine morning he went to a showroom to have a look at the various options available and to decide on the variant that most suited him and his family. Write a dialogue between Mr Mehta and the sales representative in a suitable way.

Sales Representative:            Welcome sir. Please have a seat.

Mr. Mehta :                            Thank you very much. I am interested in buying family car.

Sales Representative :           Very well, sir. But first of all please tell me your budget

We deal in the country’s most favoured brand Yakuti and we have a number of options that may suit you.

Mr. Mehta :                              Well, my budget is between 4 and 5 lacs.

Sales Representative :   Also, please let us know how many members there are in your  family?

Mr. Mehta :                           We are four, my wife, two daughters and I and we want a petrol car not  diesel one.

Sales Representative :           (Showing a brochure) Sir, I Would recommend you our best seller brand ‘Glitz’.

Mr. Mehta :                             Why do you suggest this brand of car?

Sales Representative:   It has the most advanced engine that gives a good mileage and all the features like, power steering, power windows, airbags and comfortable design and space.

Mr. Mehta :  That’s fine. Please give me this brochure and I will discuss the details with my wife and we will together visit you tomorrow.

Sales Representative: Very well sir. You are welcome.

Q3. Write a dialogue between two friends on the choice of career

Sujon : Hello Jamia, how are you ?

Jamia : Fine, thank you. And how about you ?

Sujon : I’m also fine, Jamia. We are in intermediate class. So we must choose our career now.

Jamia : You are quite right. Success in life depends on the right choice of career.

Sujon : We must choose our career properly. May I know your choice of career?

Jamia : Yes, of course. I have decided to become a doctor. Do you like this profession?

Sujon : Yes I do. It is a  good profession. Could you tell me why you have chosen this profession?

Jamia : Most of our people are deprived of the service of the doctors.

Sujon : Yes there are shortage of good doctors in our country. They people who live in the villages cannot consult a good doctor.

Jamia : I want to serve the people.

Sujon : Are you willing to go to the villagers if necessary?

Jamia : Yes, of course.  Through this profession I will be able to earn money  honestly. Well, could you tell me about your choice of career?

Sujon  : Of course. I want to be an agriculture officer.

Jamia : Most students like to be doctor, Engineer or administrator. Why not you?

Sujon : Our country is an agricultural country. Our economy depends on agriculture.

Jamia : Yes, it is right. Please tell me about your plan.

Sujon : I will get myself  admitted into an Agricultural University. After completing my education I will join the service of agriculture cadre. I will make research on agriculture.

Jamia : It’s a noble profession too.

Sujon : I’ll teach  the farmers  about the modern method  of cultivation.

Jamia : I appreciate your plan.

Sujon : Choosing career is not enough. We must work hard to fulfill our plan.

Jamia : Of course. We must do well in the H.S.C Examination, otherwise we will not be able to become a doctor or an agriculture officer.

Sujon : Of course .Thank you Jamia. It was really nice speaking to you.

Jamia : You’re welcome. Good bye. See you again.

Sujon : Bye. 

Q4. A Dialogue between Two Friends about the Bad Effects of Smoking

Sujon: Hello, Sumon! How are you?

Sumon: Thanks, I am fine. How are you?

Sujon: Thanks, I am also fine. What’s the smell coming out from your mouth?

Sumon: Nothing. It’s the smell of smoking.

Sujon: Smoking! Oh my God! You are smoker!

Sumon: Why are you so excited? Smoking is nothing so bad.

Sujon: Not bad? Don’t you know the bad effects of smoking?

Sumon: If smoking is bad, why so many people smoke all over the world?

Sujon: They smoke because they don’t understand the bad effects. Do you know that smoking causes cancer?

Sumon: Cancer?

Sujon: Yes, cancer. Smoking causes many other diseases. It also affects our lunge.

Sumon: But smoking makes people smart.

Sujon: It’s a false notion. People hate smokers. Besides, smoking the beginning of drug addiction.

Sumon: I didn’t think like you.

Sujon: So, It is high time you gave up smoking.

Sumon: Of course. I will not smoke further.

Sujon: And you should persuade people not to smoke.

Sumon: Thank you very much for you valuable advice.

Sujon: You are most welcome. I have to go now.

Sumon: Bye. See you later.

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