B.COM, B.A, B.SC 1ST Semester Communicative English notes | Unit – 3 Reading and understanding


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B.COM, B.A , B.SC 1st Semester Communicative English notes ACCORDING TO CBCS PATTERN

Nowadays every university is following the syllabus based on CBCS Pattern. students are facing difficulties in getting all subjects notes as per CBCS Pattern. In this post, i have provided you B.COM 1ST Semester Communicative English notes, B. A 1ST Semester Communicative English notes, B.SC 1ST Semester Communicative English notes Hope you like it. Do share with your friends so they can also get the notes of new CBCS pattern



B.COM, B.A, B.SC 1ST Semester Communicative English notes | Unit – 2 Speaking Skills


Close Reading

Close reading is thoughtful, critical analysis of a text that focuses on significant details or patterns in order to develop a deep, precise understanding of the text’s form, craft, meanings, etc. It is a key requirement of the Common Core State Standards and directs the reader’s attention to the text itself.

Steps Involve in Close Readig

 1.Read the story from beginning to end – the first thing you need to do is read the whole story so as to see what you are dealing with;

2. Annotate specific parts of the text by highlighting phrases or sentences and noting the literary elements used – this you need to do in order to emphasize the most important elements that you need to focus on;

3. Take notes on your reactions to the literary elements you identified – first, you need to identify these elements (which you did in step 2), and then think about them and see what your reactions may be;

4. Summarize what you’ve read and highlighted try to shorten the story in order to see whether you’ve covered everything;

5. Reread the story so as to check everything one more time.



Translation is the communication of meaning from one language (the source) to another language (the target). Translation refers to written information, whereas interpretation refers to spoken information.The purpose of translation is to convey the original tone and intent of a message, taking into account cultural and regional differences between source and target languages.

The term translation comes from the Latin word ” translation ” meaning “a carrying across or “bringing across” or “ re-languaging” a work.

Types of Translations

1.Literal Translation 

This is word to word translation that tries to provide exact equivalents of the words in the target language as they exist in the source language. 

Semantic Translation 

This type of translation translates the meaning or idea of an expression. It is also called free translation. The aim is to retain the context of the source language in the target language which lends a kind of naturalness to the translated work. 

Functional Translation 

When the target test intends to replicate the function of the source text rather than to explain or analyze it in close detail it is called functional translation. 


This type of translation targets solely the reader and sifts the message to the advantage of reader by clearing difficulties and obscurities that the translator foresees for the target reader. He/she makes use not only of grammatical competence but also sociolinguistic competence i.e. the ability to understand and produce utterances appropriately in context. 

Administrative technical/official Translation 

This type of translation involves professional translators for it refers to translating managerial texts used in organizations. The purpose of translation is not to entertain or simplify but to communicate exactly what is intended in the source text..

Literary Translation 

This translation deals with literary works of fiction or poetry. The main function of this type of translation is to make an emotional and aesthetic impression upon the reader.

Difficulties in translating from source language to target language

Challenges in translation often arise from the multiple ways people use specific words to express concepts and ideas. They often use words that go beyond the primary meaning of each term.

But as the language service industry has boomed in recent years, more people understand that translation is more than rewriting the source content into a target language.

Translators and language specialists need to go beyond word-to-word translation to transfer the exact meaning from one language to the other.

Here are the top five challenges in translation for most language specialists–and how to overcome them.

1. Translating Idioms

Idioms are linguistic expressions, specific to each language or culture. While they’re essential elements of the language, they’re also difficult to explain when you’re not aware of the cultural differences between the source and target languages.

2. Humor is the Biggest Challenge in Translation

Explaining humor is the most challenging task for translators because the sense of humor depends on the cultural background of a person. Think about the famous ‘British humor’ and how even other English-speaking populations rarely have a taste for it. Now, imagine how hard it is to overcome language barriers and still be funny.

There’s a direct correlation between humor and languages, even when jokes are visual or musical. That’s because language and history are fundamental to the way we think and relate to the environment and other people.

Sometimes translators can’t transmit the amusing part because there’s no equivalent wordplay in the target language. In other cases, the cultural background of an audience doesn’t allow them to understand the humor.

3. Translating Phrasal Verbs

Phrasal verbs are tough challenges in translation, especially when translating from English into languages that don’t use similar constructions.

Phrasal verbs are composed of a verb and a preposition, or an adverb, or both. This makes it difficult for translators to recognize it at first glance. Most translators are native speakers of the target language, so English is their second language.

The difficulty comes from the fact that the phrasal verb gets an entirely different meaning after you add the preposition or adverb.

4. Prefixes and Suffixes Are Challenges in Translation

Prefixes and suffixes create variety in English. They also turn nouns into adjectives or verbs into nouns, which can quickly become a translator’s nightmare, especially when the target language isn’t that flexible when it comes to creating new words.

These groups of letters that English speakers often use to provide deeper meanings to words are hard to translate when the other language doesn’t have so many layers to express the same concept.

Most languages use prefixes and suffixes to create new words, but each one has different rules when it comes to preserving meanings and empowering words.


5. Words with No Correspondent in the Target Language

Every language has words that are impossible to translate into some other languages, such as “serendipity” or “procrastination”. When one language has a specific word to describe a situation, finding an alternative expression in another language becomes a challenge in translation.


Analysis and interpretation of a text or data is an activity that requires critical reading. To analyze a text critically the reader reads and rereads the text to identify pattern of elements ranging from information, values and assumption that give value to the text and then evaluates the assertions for their authenticity. Analysis can be called a linear activity because it begins by recognizing what a text says about a topic and goes on to understand the information, ideas and opinions stated in the text in a sequential form. The reader depends on the content, language and structure of the text to come to any conclusion while interpreting the text. The aim of analysis and interpretation is not limited to careful and close reading of the text. It focuses on recognizing and analyzing the evidence and persuasive elements that a text present. To put it simply, the aim of all analysis and interpretation is to teach you what to look for in a text (analysis) and how to think about what you find (interpretation). Analysis involves recognizing the aspects in a text that control the meaning and interpretation involves drawing inferences from within the text.

Types of Analysis and Internratation

Analysis and Interpretation may be Qualitative or Quantitative in nature.

1.Qualitative analysis and interpretation: It refers to interpretation of texts and narratives. Qualitative Data Data analysis and interpretation involves a process of assigning meaning to the collected information. This information may be collected in the form of responses to questionnaires as ‘ves. ‘no’ answers or where respondents are asked to provide rankings. In such cases where the data is not numeric, it is best to group the responses in specific categories and then add up to evaluate and interpret. Identifying common themes and consolidating data into groups of similar responses or categories enables you to identify the patterns of reactions and arriving at conclusions.

2. Quantitative analysis and interpretation: It means handling and interpreting data. In qualitative analysis data is usually in the form of questionnaire and interview records. The term dala however avoided in qualitative analysis as it has quantitative connotations. The preferred term in qualitative Analysis and Interpretation is findings or research material. The role of culture i.e. patterns of beliefs, values, meanings and customs is also vital to analyzing material that is qualitative in nature. It helps to add credibility to the material. Analysis and Interpretation also helps in mapping and exploring the implications of the text under consideration. It also assesses the difference a text makes to one’s knowledge, attitude or behavior.

Steps of Analysis and Interpretation

1. Identifying the introduction, body and conclusion of a text.

2. The use of examples and illustrations.

3. The use of evidence to support the argument.

4. The use of language to beautify the text.

5. Sequencing of thoughts.

6. Description and elaboration of thought.

7. The data used in the text.

8. Inferring and analysis the text on the basis of underlying assumptions and perspectives after critical and reflective reading.

What is summary? 

A summary is a synopsis or recap or a shorter version of the original. It present the gist and salient features of an article, text or speech by separating material into separate elemental constituents and exploring the relationship of the parts to the whole.

When to summarize

1. When you want to give an overview of the topic.

2. When you wish to highlight only the main ideas of the writer

3. When you want to simplify a complex argument

4. When you want to condense a piece of writing

5. When you want to distance yourself from the original text

Process of summarizing

1. Decipher the purpose of your summarizing

2. Accordingly select the relevant information

3. Find the main idea – you may find it in the topic

4. Distinguish between main and subsidiary information

5. Delete irrelevant and unimportant information like examples, illustrations and anecdotes

6. Retain vital facts/figures

7. Find alternate words/synonyms

8. Retain key terms and specialized vocabulary

9. Change the structure of the text

10. Rewrite the main ideas

11. Simplify text by reducing complex sentences into simpler words

12. Re-arrange words, change nouns to verbs, adjectives to adverbs

13. Express relationships in a different way while retaining the tone of the author

14. Use connectors like ‘therefore’, ‘however’, ‘although’, ‘since’ to connect the ideas   into a piece of continuous writing.

15. A summary has no dramatic structure and is written in present tense

16. In summaries only indirect speech is used and depictions are avoided

17. Check your work to ensure that the purpose is clear and the meaning is the same.


The word paraphrase comes from the Greek word ‘paraphrases’ which means ‘to tell in other words’. It involves recounting a sources’ primary material in words that are different from the original. It is essential, in paraphrasing to communicate the central idea of the words in the passage or text in hand. Hence, paraphrasing means to put the text in your own words. Here text could mean anything: words, pictures or a situation. It involves unpacking vocabulary and syntax and inferring the idioms.

Paraphrasing is the process of rewriting someone else’s ideas in your words without altering the meaning of the original text. 

Process of  paraphrasing:

1. Read the text carefully – may be twice till you are able to comprehend.

2. Look up the meaning of the words you don’t understand

3. Identify key ideas by underlining them and try to state them in your words.

4. Group the ideas under your own headings and you may arrange them in a different sequence to the original text.

5. Decide the tone of the author and accordingly use reporting verbs that retain the mood of the author.

6. Try to rephrase the main ideas – you may retain key words and specialized vocabulary.

7. Draft your summary or paraphrase keeping the above steps in mind. Check to see if you have retained the original meaning and attitude.

Difference between summary and paraphrasing

S.No             Summary            Paraphrasing
1Mentions only the main points of any work in your own wordsParaphrasing means writing a particular text in your own words.
2A summary is substantially shorter than the original.Paraphrasing is almost equal or somewhat less than the original text.
3Summarizing is done to mention only the major points without any kind of explanation about the matter. 
4Summarizing a source means that you capture the main idea of a source. It helps to condense  “big picture” ideas into a discussion of work in its entiretyParaphrasing a source means that you use your own words to discuss a specific source’s idea.It is often used in situations when you can state the idea more clearly than the source has.
5While summarizing think of yourself as a critic or reviewer.While summarizing think of yourself as a translator.
6Purpose of a summary is to condense the source material shorter than the original.Purpose of paraphrasing is to restate the source material irrespective of length.


The word comprehension is derived from the word “comprehend’ which mean “to understand”. Reading comprehension is the ability to read a text and to be able to process it and understand it. The ability of an individual to comprehend a text is determined and influenced by various learning traits and skills. It also depends to a large extent on an individual’s ability to draw inferences after reading a text. There are many reading strategies like skimming and scanning which one may use to read a text. The choice of the reading strategy adopted also depends on the type of text and the level of comprehension required.

Steps by step approach to handling comprehension passages:

• Getting to the main idea

Often it is contained in the first sentence. In longer passages it may be reflected in the title, heading or concluding statements

• Identifying cause-effect relationships

It refers to how the events relate to each other. Words that indicate cause effect are “because as a result’, ‘due to’etc

• Identifying fact and opinion

Facts are established truths and opinions are personal judgements and are often expressed by comparisons (strongest, heaviest, best) or adjectives (brilliant, useless)

• Drawing inferences

Inferences are deduced from the information provided in the text. It is not clearly stated

but implied by the context

• Compare and contrast

While comparing focuses on similarities contrast focuses on differences. For comparing and contrasting we need to use the information we already know- words that denote comparison may be ‘similarly’, ‘likewise’, ‘in the same way’, ‘just as’. Words that denote contrast may be ‘however’, ‘conversely’, ‘yet’, ‘nevertheless’ etc.


Means giving an order to the events – what happened before, what followed etc Worde,

that indicate sequence are ‘first, then’, ‘finally’, ‘at last”.

 • Drawing conclusions

Aims to consider all that has been said and interpret this information. It is a summary : statement.

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