Table of Contents
B.COM, B.A , B.SC 2ND SEM ENGLISH NOTES ACCORDING TO CBCS PATTERN
Now a days every university is following syllabus based on CBCS Pattern. students are facing difficulties in getting all subjects notes as per CBCS Pattern. In this post i have provided you B.COM, B.A, B.SC 2ND SEM ENGLISH NOTES. Hope you like it. Do share with your friends so they can also get the notes of new cbcs pattern
A Speech is a formal talk that a person delivers to his audience. It must have the capacity to hold the attention of the audience with a proper choice of words, expressions and explains. At the same time care should be taken not to deviate from the main subject. You must keep in mind that it is a speech and you need to begin the draft with addressing the audience and conclusion should be with a sentence thanking the audience.
Public speaking is the process or act of performing a speech to a live audience. Public speaking is commonly understood as formal, face-to-face speaking of a single person to a group of listeners. Traditionally, public speaking was considered to be a part of the art of persuasion.
Types of Public Speaking
1.Ceremonial Speaking: Most people will give some sort of ceremonial speech during their lifetime. These speeches mark special occasions. They are common at weddings, graduations and funerals — as well as large birthday celebrations and office holiday parties. Ceremonial speaking typically involves a toast and is personal with an intimate emotional connection to people hearing it.
2.Demonstrative Speaking: Science demonstrations and role-playing are types of demonstrative speaking. This type of public speaking requires being able to speak clearly and concisely to describe actions and to perform those actions while speaking. A demonstrative speaker may explain the process behind generating power while cycling to power a toaster, for example. The idea behind demonstrative speaking is that the audience members leave with the knowledge about how to do something.
3. Informative Speaking: With informative speaking, the speaker is trying simply to explain a concept to the audience members. College lecture courses involve informative speaking as do industry conferences and public officials sharing vital information. In this type of speaking, the information is what is important. The speaker is not trying to get others to agree with him or to show them how to do something for themselves. Rather he is disseminating vital information.
4. Persuasive Speaking: Persuasive speaking tends to be the most glitzy. Politicians, lawyers and clergy members use persuasive speaking. This type of speaking requires practicing voice inflections and nuances of language that will convince the audience members of a certain viewpoint. The persuasive speaker has a stake in the outcome of the speech. Politicians, for instance, may want votes or a groundswell of support for a pet project, while lawyers are trying to convince a jury of their position — and clergy members are trying to win others over to their faith. The persuasive speaker uses emotional appeals and strong language in speeches.
How to prepare a good speech
Following points should be kept in mind while preparing a speech
1. Objective: While preparing, the first thing that should cross your mind is the objective of your speech. Is it a conversation drill, a speaking task, a competition or an interaction? Clarity of the objective of speaking is a must.
2. Audience: The next important component is the audience who are you speaking to. Is it your class or a larger audience comprising of teachers and all students of your college? Would the gathering be small or large? Would they be your fellow students or academicians as well? Experts or non-experts? Will you be speaking from a podium or stage? The content of your speech will depend to a large extent on the audience before whom you will be delivering your speech.
3.Venue and Logistics: The third aspect that you need to consider is the venue or place where you would be delivering the speech. It is going to be your classroom or the college auditorium? What is the technical aid available to you – the logistics like Mic System, projector, laptop etc. need to be ascertained. The seating arrangement of the speakers and the audience is also very important, so take a brief review of the facilities and equipments provided.
4. Time: Fourthly it is very important to know the time limit. What is the time allotted to you and how are you placed in the sequence of speakers. Would you be making the opening remarks or are to speak just before or after lunch when the audience is hungry or sleep?. Accordingly, you need to intersperse your speech with anecdotes and activities that break the monotony.
5. Formal or informal set-up: Consider the method that you will adopt for your speech. Is it a formal or informal occasion?. Would you be using humour and anecdotes to make your speech effective or is your tone going to be sober and serious. Next, provide a title to your work. It helps to retain focus and you will not deviate from the subject. Gather suitable visual aids to supplement your content.
6. Structure: It is important to provide a structure that depicts logical development of thought. The following flow chart will help you to plan your speech.
7. Keep key notes handy: Spontaneity is the key to good speaking. If you just read from a paper in hand it will send your audience to sleep. If key points are close at hand they help you to keep focus and you can ensure you follow the order of your speech.
8. Practice: Rehearsing is essential to success. Familiarity with the words used in your speech will prevent you from fumbling during your presentation. Difficult pronunciation should be practiced over and over again. Make necessary modifications if you identify weaknesses in your speech.
9. Effective Delivery: Build a warm rapport with the audience. This will relax you and help you overcome nervousness. Maintain eye contact with audience. Introduction is important. Speaking slowly and calmly will help you to settle down.
10. Body language: Body language is a positive, powerful tool to help you speak effectively. Paralanguage conveys more than words. The way you talk, the gestures you make, your eye :-contact speak volumes about your personality. In fact your body speaks to your audience even before you open your mouth. Your dressing sense, your hair cut, your walk to the podium – all leave an impression on the audience.
11. Speed Intonation, Loudness: our Voice should be clearly audible to the audience yet not shrieky. Try to vary the tons to make your speech interesting and to add variety to the content. Speed can be varied according to the content, as well you can choose to speed through easy or repetitive material and slower the pace for more complex things which need further elaboration and explanation Silence too, is a great tool to capture audience attention. Pitch of your voice and also be used to add or remove emphasis while speaking.
12. Language: The golden rule to a successful speech is to keep the language simple and clear. Use short words and sentences and avoid jargon. It only confuses the audience. State concrete facts rather than talking abstractly and vaguely. Active verbs should be preferred over passive verbs as they are more impactful and easier to understand.
13. Signposting: Just as while driving signposts help us to gain a sense of direction and makes it easy to navigate the roads, to help the audience avoid getting lost in a speech, it is a good idea to recap frequently. This helps the audience to know where they are. This technique is called signposting or signaling. The golden rule of communication is “Say what you are going to say, say it, then say what you have just said”
13. Audience Reaction/Questions: Having summed up your speech, if the protocol demands you to take questions, invite them one by one. You can choose to restrict the number of questions. Avoid getting irritated and maintain poise even if you are faced with difficult questions. Be polite and courteous.
Characteristics and importance of a good speech:
A good speech must bear the following characteristics.
- Clarity: A good speech should be clear to the audience or listener. A speech must be successful to attain its objective by making a clear expression.
- Informal talk: A good speech should be like a chat between two intimate friends. There should be perfect contact between speaker and audience.
- Live and concrete: A good speech is lived in nature and contains concrete facts which are easy to understand.
- Short: Audience on an average cannot concentrate more than fifteen to twenty minutes. So, speech should not be longer than this unless the audience wants more.
- Interesting: A good speech is an interesting one which involves quotations, anecdotes and humour. Quotations should be original and anecdote should be new and brief. Whereas humour should be genteel with good taste.
- Audience oriented: A good speech is always audience-oriented. It considers the age, sex, religion, social and economic view of the listener and makes it communicative.
- Besides the above criteria, a good speech also bears quality like the relevance of facts, timely presentation and objective orientation.
SAMPLES OF SPEECH
1. You have been asked to deliver a speech on ‘Cancer – a silent killer’ at ‘The World Health Day’ celebrations.
Cancer – A Silent Killer
President Sir, respected teachers and dear friends,
Today is ‘The World Health Day. It is a matter of concern that our urban population has become cancer-prone more than the rural population. Every tenth person is likely to have cancer. It is due to a high level of benzene in the air. It is also due to the high levels of pesticides in the foods. Also, highly radio-active waves of the cell phones etc., have contributed to this grave danger to the human population.
To check this menace of cancer, the Government shall have to give topmost priority to preventive actions. More facilities like diagnostic centres and cancer hospitals need to be created for the treatment of cancer patients.
I would say that we all should sit together and devise ways and means to contain the spread of this deadly disease. First of all, we must ban the wide use of pesticides. Excessive use of pesticides is really harmful to human health. In developed countries, much emphasis is being laid on organic manure instead of the fertilizer. So we have to introduce organic manure. Then crop pattern needs to be changed.
Besides this, a kind of public awareness programme will have to be undertaken. The public is to be awakened towards the growth of cancer and its easy detection. This would help in the containing of this disease at its initial stages. If cancer is detected and treated at the early stages, it can’t be fatal.
5. You are the Captain of Everest House of your school. Write a speech to be delivered at the morning assembly about noise pollution, interpreting the data given below. Also, give your suggestions on how it can be curbed. Write your answer in your answer sheet in not more than 150 – 200 words:
|Loudness of sound during the day (in decibels)
|Loudness of sound during the night (in decibels)
|Kolkata Chennai Mumbai Delhi
|86 78 77 73
|72 73 67 68
|According to WHO, for sound health, the loudness of sound during days should not exceed 55 decibels and during nights it should not exceed 35 decibels.
Respected Principal, worthy teachers and dear fellow-students,
Today I, in the capacity of the Captain of Everest House of the school, am speaking on ‘Noise Pollution’ in cities. The World Health Organisation has stated that for sound health loudness of sound during the daytime should not exceed 55 decibels. During nights it should not exceed 35 decibels. But in our metropolitan cities, this level far exceeds the one prescribed by the WHO. For example, Kolkata tops the list with 86 decibels and 72 decibels during the day and night respectively. Chennai has 78 and 73, Mumbai 77 and 67 and lastly Delhi 73 and 68 during day and night respectively.
I am of the opinion that noise pollution has already affected millions of people in these cities. The number of people going deaf has increased five or six times more. Noise causes irritation, anger, helplessness and depression. In many cases, it increased blood pressure. The pressure horns are the deadliest of all kinds of sound pollution. Loudspeakers atop religious place, honking, playing or brass-bands in marriages, vehicles on roads, rattling bus bodies, etc., are the major sources of this sound pollution.
So, strict action is needed to contain the noise pollution. Erring vehicle drivers should be booked under the rules. Loudspeakers stop religious place should be asked to play at the prescribed levels. Only sustained efforts of the authorities and the awareness of the public can curb the menace of noise pollution in our cities.
Thank you all.
6. You are the Head Boy/Head Girl of your school. You have decided to make the students aware of the advantages of tree plantation and tell them how trees can serve as better source of oxygen and fresh air. Prepare a speech you intend to deliver in the morning assembly the next day and write it in your answer sheet using not more than 150 – 200 words. You can take help of the note given below.
Advantages of Tree Plantation
Respected Principal, Teachers and Dear Friends,
Today I, speak to you all on a topic which is really very important for all of us and for the survival of the human race. It is the ‘Importance of Trees’. I am sure that each one of you is aware how important trees are in our life. For example, they take and absorb the heat of the earth. Indeed, they have numerous advantages. Precisely speaking, they absorb the dangerous carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. They help in controlling the temperature. They bring rains. They take the heat off the earth as well as the atmosphere. They provide us shade. They maintain the ecological balance of the earth and provide us with life-giving oxygen. Seeing their enormous benefits, we should plant as many trees as possible. The Chipko Movement and Van Mahotsava celebrations only highlight the benefits of trees and forests.
I fell very sad that we have destroyed much of the flora and fauna for meeting our existential needs. But we must replenish the depleting forests by planting more and more trees at every possible inch of the land. Our life depends on trees. We should educate the people about the benefits of growing more trees. This way, we can cleanse our environmental from the environmental pollution. I am of the opinion that we must take a pledge to plant more and more trees to make the earth a safe and pleasant place for ourselves and also for the coming generations.
7. You are a member of your school’s Social Service League. You have decided to visit a nearby village from your school on a holiday to speak to the villagers on how smoking is a silent killer of life, besides being a drain on the limited income of an average income earner. Write your speech in your answer sheet in not more than 150 – 200 words. Among other points you can also mention, how the vital organs are getting affected due to smoking, how it is harmful even to thus who do not smoke but happen to be seen with smokers and how by various methods we should educate people on the dangerous effects of smoking.
Smoking – A Silent Killer
As you are aware I am with you to speak on the dangerous effects of smoking. Smoking is actually a silent killer of life. It is also a drain on the limited income of yours. You may say that you feel relieved when you smoke. But it is just your own whim. Smoking does more harm than you can imagine. It doesn’t give any relief from anxiety. The nicotine present in cigarettes is a poison. It is dangerous to various vital organs like heart, kidney, liver and lungs. It is actually a slow poison and kills a smoker slowly. They say that smoking a cigarette shortens one’s life by four minutes. So smoking means shortening one’s life knowingly every hour, every day.
Smoking also affects the non-smokers. So a person who smokes is affecting the health of the other persons who are near him. Smoking can cause a deadly disease like cancer. There is a statutory warning on the cigarette packets that smoking is injurious to health. But smokers close their eyes like ostriches ignoring its deadly harms. The government has taken a right decision by banning smoking at public places. Let the youth of India beware! Never smoke. Give it up just now and forever.
Thanks a lot.
8. You are required to speak on ‘Pollution’ in the school morning assembly. Prepare your speech taking help from the following points. Write your answer in your answer sheet using not more than 150 – 200 words.
Worthy Principal, teachers and dear students. Today I stand before you to speak on ‘Environmental Pollution’.
Environmental pollution is one of the major and serious problems that are being faced by the developing countries. The ecological balance of the earth is being threatened by it. Air and water are polluted by the toxic constituents. Noise pollution has destroyed the calm and serenity of our surroundings.
The main sources of pollution are the increasing vehicular traffic and garbage. The petrol and diesel being used in vehicles emit toxic smoke. It contains lethal gases like carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide. All those inhaling these gases contract deadly diseases like bronchitis, asthma and other breathing problems. The accumulated garbage emits a foul smell. Various leather and chemical industries pollute both the air and water by belching out poisons smoke and effluents in drains, lakes, and rivers.
The increasing felling of trees, building of dams and upcoming of congested localities have havoc with the clean environment. Human life is in real danger. We need to plant more trees at every possible patch of land. I understand that there is also a need of shifting industries and mills established in congested colonies to safer places. To control traffic carpools must be made so that the emission level from them is contained within prescribed levels.
Thank you all.
9. In an inter-school debate, you have to speak in favour of the motion ‘Modern Gadgets have made us slaves of machines’. Write a speech in favour of this motion in your answer sheet in not more than 150 – 200 words.
Modern Gadgets Have Made Us Slaves of Machines
Respected judges, ladies and gentlemen,
Since the beginning of civilization, man has been making things for his use, like stone tools etc. As civilization progressed, man’s efforts also increased to make various gadgets. The present times are basically the times of machines. Everything from a needle to highly advanced spacecraft, is made by complex machines. Without gadgets, appliance and machines, we can’t imagine modern living or any kind of civilized life.
Ironically, modern gadgets have made us slaves of machines. From the kitchen to industrial units, everything depends on machines. This has made the modern man a slave to gadgets. Consequently, human health has deteriorated to a larger extent. Physical labour is very necessary for good health. Perspiration keeps the human body perfectly tuned. But dependence on gadgets has made us lazy, inactive and dull. The new generation is growing physically weak. Incidentally the more we depend on machines, the less energetic and dynamic we become. Our forefathers used to walk for miles. But today we need a vehicle to cover a few hundred metres.
Today man has been reduced to a machine devoid of emotions, feelings, love, peace and pity. So it is better to use modern gadgets judiciously and not to abuse them.
10. You are Mukesh/Mukta of Saket. You have been reading the news items on Nithari killings. Write a speech in about 150 – 200 words to be given in the morning assembly stressing the need of keeping a close vigil on the anti-social elements of the locality and taking care of young children of the area so that they don’t fall prey to bad characters.
Child Abuse and Anti-Social Elements
Respective Principal, teachers and dear friends,
The horrifying news items of Nithari killings have shocked the whole nation. How can such ghostly and devilish activities happen in the vicinity of the capital of India? The killings of innocent children highlight the main issue of Child Abuse. It also exposes how anti-social elements and bad characters have poisoned our social and cultural life. Child abuse is more th physical abuse. It leaves deep andlasting scars on the victims. Ignoring children’s needs, putting them in a a dangerous situation and providing inhuman treatment are some of the other abuse quite prevalent in our society. Constant belittling, shaming and humiliating of children continue unabated.
The Nithari killings have highlighted the issue of child sexual abuse of anti-social elements and bad characters. It is a complicated form of abuse because of its layers of guilt and shame. Sexual abuse doesn’t always involve body contact. Exposing a child to sexual situations is equally sexually abusive. Sexual predators roam freely. Abuse of children as domestichelp continues unabated. Many of them are abused physically and sexually. Our policemen remain meek spectators. It is quite shocking that sometimes such inhuman practices go on with their active collusion with the bad characters. Thousands of children are found missing every year. Where do they go? It is quite an open secret that gangs of anti-social people operate in every town and city. Children are kidnapped. Physically and sexually abused and forced to beg at crossroads. This vicious circle goes on. There is an urgent need of keeping a close vigil on the anti-social elements. They should be given exemplary punishment. All risk factors for child abuse and neglect should be rooted out. Only then, young children will not fall prey to bad characters.
12. Children usually come to school without taking breakfast in the morning and eat junk food from the school canteen. This habit affects adversely the performance of students in academics and sports. Write a speech in about 150 – 200 words to be given in your school assembly about ‘How Health is Affected by Lifestyle’.
How Health is Affected by Lifestyle
A variety of lifestyle or health-related habits have a major impact on a person’s health. Behavioural and social issues that impact on health include smoking, diets, nutrition and alcohol. Malnutrition, lack of physical exercises, drug-addiction are other major factors that leave a deep impact on our health. Obesity or being overweight can lead to a number of health hazards. It may lead to high blood pressure, diabetes, heart diseases, indigestion and some cancers. Greater number of people put on extra weight through poor diet or insufficient exercise. Binge drinking or alcohol-related problems can lead to ill health and premature death.
Smoking is a major cause of lung cancer, heart disease, asthma and high blood pressure. Researchers have proved that smoking can reduce life expectancy by seven to eight years. Drug taking can have a devastating effect on personal health and circumstances. It can lead to far-reaching consequences on family, friends and communities.
It is rightly believed that the life of a person depends on his lifestyle factors. Money, marriage and stress levels also affect our health. Persistent lack of money brings poverty and diminishes our purchasing capacity of essential food articles, vegetables and fruit. It has a direct bearing on our health. Mortality rates have been found higher in unmarried persons. Marriage may reduce stress and stress-related illness. It may discourage risky or unhealthy behaviours.
Real comfort and happiness are experienced when we are in sound health. The cause of many diseases is not a particular germ or bacteria but a wrong lifestyle. An ideal lifestyle includes moderation in exercise, yoga, diet, sleep, physical and mental relaxation. Positive thinking and cultivation of a proper mental attitude are powerful factors for a healthy living.