B.COM, B.A, B.SC 2ND SEM ENGLISH NOTES | Unit – 2 Article writing


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Now a days every university is following syllabus based on CBCS Pattern. students are facing difficulties in getting all subjects notes as per CBCS Pattern. In this post i have provided you B.COM, B.A, B.SC 2ND SEM ENGLISH NOTES. Hope you like it. Do share with your friends so they can also get the notes of new cbcs pattern

B.COM, B.A, B.SC 2ND SEM ENGLISH NOTES |Unit -1 Interview

B.COM, B.A , B.SC 2ND SEM ENGLISH NOTES | Unit -3 Speech writing

B.COM, B.A, B.SC 2ND SEM ENGLISH NOTES | Unit – 4 Report Writing

B.COM, B.A, B.SC 2ND SEM ENGLISH NOTES |Unit -5 Dialogue Writing


An article is a piece of writing mainly intended to be published in a newspaper, magazine or journal, and has a wide audience. Article writing is the process of creating a non- fiction text about topics that can vary from very serious to the ordinary. They can discuss areas such as current issues or topics of general interest such as health, politics, entertainment, environmental concerns, etc. Since it is written for a wide audience, it is essential that the language used is interesting, yet simple, and includes stories, anecdotes and facts to keep the readers engaged. The language used in an article can be formal or informal depending on the target audience, but it must be less formal than a report

What can an article do?/ Advantages of an article

Unlike a report, an article can do much more than simply report an event or state facts.

  • It can offer suggestions and advice.
  • It can provide information on various topics/subjects.
  • It can bring about a comparison.
  • It can describe a location, person, object, technology, etc.
  • It can simply amuse and bring a smile on the readers face.
  • It can enable readers to think, hence it can influence.
  • It can o er opinions, arguments/counter-arguments

Format of an Article

An article is usually considered part of informal writings. There are no rules or techniques to abide by while writing articles, yet an organized structure is preferred. Hence, a basic outline of the format needs to be studied.

Heading/Title: Eye-catching; illustrating the central theme

By Line: Writer’s name (to be mentioned under the title towards the right)

Introduction: Establish the context. Draw the readers’ attention using anecdotes, startling facts, statistics,rhetorical questions or quotations.

Body: 2-3 paragraphsdetailing the various aspects of the topic i.e. merits, demerits, causes, consequences,effects, advantages, disadvantages.

Conclusion: A formal and logical end to the above-written content; a summary of all that has been includedin the article. One may conclude with a final opinion, recommendation or comment expressing a hope, a warning, an appeal or a call for action.

Points to Remember

  • The topics should be unique and of relevance.
  • Know the target audience.
  • Identify the aim of writing the article- to advise, inform, entertain, compare, describe, etc.
  • The title should be short and eye-catching.
  • Begin with a striking opening sentence which gets the readers interested in the topic.
  • The writer must have enough to say; choose your ideas beforehand.
  • Be true to what you write, make assertions and go by them throughout the article.
  • Keep the article brief; unnecessary repetitions and irrelevant information make it boring.
  • Break the article into paragraphs; it acts as a breather.
  • Pay attention to the choice of voice and tense.
  • Conclude logically.


Steps in Article writing

Like reports, articles too need to be well written to hold the readers’ attention. The stages of article writing are discussed below.

Step 1: Identify the target audience

Before you begin writing, it is important to consider who the intended readers are. Are they a specific group such as students or businessmen, or adults in general?

Step 2: Identify the purpose of writing

Identify the aim of the article. Is your aim to advise, suggest, inform, compare and contrast, describe, etc.? Step 1 and Step 2 are the deciding factors in the layout of your article, its style, language and level of formality.

Example: If the topic for the article is ‘Careers in Commerce’, then the target audience will be students of Commerce. The article would be an informative one detailing the various careers that a commerce student can choose from, colleges/universities, eligibility, and selection process. The tone must be formal and the language easy and straightforward. If the article is meant for doctors then technical jargon related to the eld of medicine can be used.

Step 3: Collect and select the information

The third step is to collect information that is available on the selected topic. You may use various sources such as books, interviews, etc. Read through them and select relevant information. It is important to ensure that the information you have collected is authentic and reliable.

Step 4: Organise the information sequentially and logically

Once the information has been gathered and selected, you must organise it so that it follows a logical order. You can make use of mind maps and flow –charts to organise the content.

Step 5: Write the article

Once you have determined the information you are going to use and organized your ideas, write the article.

The article could be formal, semi-formal or informal, depending on your intended audience.

First, give your article a title that catches the attention of the reader. Then begin writing the article with a striking opening sentence which addresses the readers and gets them interested in the topic. Remember to present a strong argument for your ideas supporting it with evidences or elaboration. Your attempt must be to develop your ideas as much as you can to make them interesting and substantial. Finally, conclude with your strongest point.

Use vocabulary and descriptive language appropriate for the article. Linking words and expressions, and a variety of vocabulary will only improve your work and make it more interesting. Use passive voice, humor, rhetorical questions to provide a specific effect.

Do not talk about yourself. You are writing for the general public, not a close circle of friends. Your opinionsare only interesting to other people if you can make them amusing, justify them or explain them.


1. You are Bala, a social worker, much concerned about the accidents caused by careless crossing of roads by pedestrians. Thinking in terms of the increasing population and the increase in the number of vehicles, you feel that if there are more subways and the existing one are made safe and better maintained, the problem can be solved. Write an article  on how pedestrians can use roads safely without getting involved in accidents.


Safety for Pedestrians

By Bala

Death stalks on the roads of Delhi. The notorious Blue Line buses are literally road-rollers. They crush everything that comes before them. But more deaths are caused by the careless crossing of roads by pedestrians than these infamous buses. The recent deaths and accidents of pedestrians in a cause of serious concern for all. The BMW incident is still fresh in the minds of the people of Delhi. Prompt but comprehensive steps are needed to solve the problem.

Why are pedestrians unsafe on the roads of Delhi? There are more than one answers to the question. The most common reason is the swelling population and the number of vehicles. We can’t arrest the march of the time. The number of vehicles will increase day by day. Only effective safety measures can provide safety to pedestrians. The most important safety measure for pedestrians is the construction of more subways. The rising number of people and vehicles critically creates chaos at the main crossroads. The crossing of the roads at such crowded crossings is quite risky. The subways can help them to cross toe roads safely. Unfortunately, most of the subways stink. They only provide shelters to beggars and anti-socials. They must be kept clean and better maintained. Most of the roads don’t have pavements for pedestrians. Wide pavements exclusively for pedestrians can provide them with much-needed safety. Prompt and timely steps can help pedestrians and they can use and crossroads safety without getting involved in accidents.

2. You are Ashok/Asha of B.com 2nd Semester. Recently many inter-college competitions and matches have been organized in your zone. Write an article on the importance of participating in games and sports highlighting the dictum a healthy mind in a healthy body. (Word limit: 150 – 200 words)


Importance of Games and Sports

By Ashok/Asha

We all are familiar with the saying ‘Health is Wealth’. Academics serve the purpose of nourishing the mind. But we must remember that ‘a healthy mind resides in a healthy body.’ One can develop and maintain a healthy body by actively participating in games and sports. Importance of games and sports can’t be minimized. They keep our body alert, active, youthful and energetic. They increase the circulation of blood. They also boost metabolism. Games and sports burn excessive and unnecessary calories. They also improve our respiratory and digestive systems. When we play games various exercises are performed automatically. Athletics, cycling, skipping, swimming and other games tone up the body. Mild exercises invigorate our minds and bodies and keep us physically fit and strong. Outdoor games include cricket, hockey, basketball, football and lawn tennis. Unfortunately, we give so much importance to academics in schools and colleges that we hardly get any opportunity to do any physical work.

There is a famous dictum that “all work and no play make Jack and dull boy”. This proverb only highlights the importance of games and sports.

Games and sports develop social and cultural values. They develop a sense of discipline and a team spirit among the players. They teach us the values of discipline, obedience and fair-play. Games and sports definitely help in moulding and shaping the character of students and youngsters. Students can utilize their youthful energy in the promotion of games and sports. They can devote more hours to their books only when they are mentally and physically strong and healthy. Games and sports must be given special status in our educational institutions. Only then the nation can produce dynamic athletes and sportsmen of international standards. The dismal performance of India in the Olympics and the Asian Games highlights our weakness in this field. “Catch them young”, should be the need of the hour. Provide good facilities, playgrounds and coaching to our budding athletes’ and sportsmen. Only then we can harvest a rich haul of medals at the international level.

3. Write an article to be published in your school bulletin on how the cable TV is both a boon and a bane. Your article should not exceed 150 – 200 words.

Cable TV – A Boon or a Bane

By X

Cable TV is a new innovation in the field of television. It attaches TVs through cable connected to a dish antenna. It is different from a normal Television in the sense that it catches a number of world channels. Thereafter it helps the programmes telecast on the TVs attached to it in our homes. It means that the consumers of the cable TV can enjoy a number of channels or programmes on their TVs. It is a revolutionary innovation for the TV. It helps us get the programmes on Discovery channel, History channel, Geography channel, BBC and many more. These channels enrich our knowledge. We know the trend of fashion, world sports, films etc, through cable TV much faster and more perfect. In this sense it is a boon to the users.

But there are some shortcomings that make it a bane. There are so many thrilling but sometimes obscene and vulgar programmes telecast on these channels. Some of the programmes promote criminal activities, violence and sex. They make children mature before their age. They become sexually active and crime-prone. They become TV-addicts which affects our society in an adverse way. Some of the programmes are so exciting that children can hardly resist watching them. Therefore cable TV spoils our younger generation too.

But if we use it wisely, no doubt, it is a boon for us. Parents need to be cautions and wise in handling their children in the case of using cable TV.

4. You are Kamakshi/Kuber. You have been selected to represent your college in a Debate competition organised by the Rotary Club, Bengaluru (South). The topic for the debate is: ‘In the opinion of this house Value-Based Education is the only remedy for decreasing the crime rate amongst the educated folk.’ Write an article on ‘Value-Based Education’.

Ans:                                                                         Value-Based Education

By Kamakshi/Kuber

There is no doubt that education has been made compulsory upto the secondary level in India. However, value-based education to all remains a distant dream. Education has been practically reduced to the job of providing degrees. These degrees do help them in getting jobs in the market. However, our education system doesn’t help young men and ladies to build up their characters and morals. The result is disastrous.

Our schools, colleges and universities are producing a huge army of irresponsible and uncivilized young brutes. Crimes among educated young men have been rising at an alarming rate. Robberies, chain-snatching, eve-teasing and thefts haven’t remained the monopoly of professional uneducated criminals anymore. Many educated young men have joined their ranks.

The need of the hour is for value-based education. Moral education should be made a compulsory subject in all schools Nationalism, patriotism, devotion and dedication to our country and its people, should be the guiding principles of our education system. Only a comprehensive and value-based education can help in the character-building moral and spiritual upliftment of the educated folk. It will certainly bring down the crime rate in them.

5. You are Rajan/Rani, Communal harmony is the need of the hour. Write an article on this to be published in your college magazine to tell the students how they can play a major role in bringing harmony and peace.


Role of Students in Maintaining Communal Harmony

By Rajan/Rani

No doubt, communal harmony is the need of the hour. The students can play a major role in bringing harmony and peace in the country. India is a country where people of different religions live together. It has many languages speaking grounds and communities. India is a country dominated by Hindus. They form about 80% of the population. But it has a big Muslin minority. India contains the second-largest Muslim population in the world. There are also other religious groups. They are Sikhs, Christians, Jains, and Buddhists. Indian culture is a composite culture. Our Constitution declares India as a democratic and secular nation. But unfortunately, the nation has witnessed so many communal riots in different parts in the past. The recent riots in Gujarat took a heavy toll of innocent human lives and property. Students are a very strong and dynamic force. They are always full of patriotic feelings. They learn to live together as sons daughters of India in schools and colleges. They can become the torchbearers of nationalism, communal harmony and peace.

The students of India played a major role during the national struggle for independence. They can play the same role in maintaining communal harmony. They can enlighten the masses by holding public meetings and peace marches. They can start a poster war against the virus of communalism. They can urge people to boycott the communal groups and parties. Their sincere efforts in this direction will certainly help in maintaining communal peace and harmony in the country.

6. Water is very precious. Some scientists even go to the extent of saying that the third world war may be fought on the issue of water. Keeping in view the need for saving each drop of water, write an article


Saving Every Drop of Water

By X

Water is very precious. It is more precious than gold. First World War was fought for capturing colonies in Asia and Africa. The Second World War was for capturing prospective markets. But scientists even go to the extent of saying that the third world war may be fought on the issue of water. There are various reasons for such huge water scarcity. The most important being the villainy of man. He has done maximum harm to the basic eco-systems in this world. Felling of trees and cleaning away of forests have led to the shrinkage of green belts in the world. It has led to a sharp decline in the general rainfall throughout the world. The global warming and the Green-House effect has led many glaciers to melt away depleting the permanent sources of water. The results are alarming. The water table in most of the countries, particularly, in the developing country like India, has gone down very low. This has affected agriculture quite adversely. Canals, tanks, tube wells and wells can’t cope with the growing demands of irrigation. In cities, unplanned urbanization and population explosion have caused alarming water scarcity. Even in cities like Delhi and Chennai taps remain dry most of the hours in a day.

In such an alarming situation, saving of each drop of water becomes very necessary. Reforestation must be down on a large scale. Water resources and the basic ecosystems shouldn’t be tampered with. The harvesting of rainwater has become very necessary. Conservation of rainwater in lakes, ponds and dams have become the top priority. Only sustained efforts and comprehensive water conservation schemes can save the meagre water resources we have at our disposal.

7. Rakesh Garg is a resident of Job Bagh, New Delhi. He is also a social worker. He is pained at rampant corruption in social and political life. He decides to write an article on ‘Corruption in India’ for the Times of India, New Delhi. Imagine yourself in place of Rakesh Garg and complete the article in about 150 – 200 words using the hints given in the input below.


Corruption in India

By Rakesh Garg

Corruption has become a way of life in India. It has entrenched itself deeply in the social, political, economic and religious life of the nation. To be true, right from the Prime Minister down to the ordinary clerk in the office, no one is free from the suspicion of being a corrupt person. The criminalisation of social and political life has only sanctified corruption in every walk of life. Rajiv Gandhi’s government was bundled out because of the Bofors deal. The UPA II was rocked by many scams and scandals. It seems corruption has percolated from the top to the bottom. In India, a parallel economy of black money operates. It is controlled and regulated by the dons of the underworld. Corruption in public life continues to be the main issue in India. The rise of Arvind Kejriwal and the ASP. In Delhi expresses the anger and agony of the people against corruption and corrupt practices.

Simple living and high thinking used to be the ideals of our leaders during the struggle for independence. But now the priorities have changed. These days scams and scandals dominate their political and social lives. Mammon, the god of wealth, has corrupted their minds and morals. Top posts and jobs can be bought. The members of the state legislatures and the Parliament are vulnerable to corrupt practices and bribery. Even the security of the nation was compromised by the self-serving politicians and their agents and power brokers. The need of the hour is an inspiring leadership equipped with a firm political will to fight and root out the growing cancer of corruption.

8. Write an article for your college magazine justifying the need for education of girls in the country for national development.


Education of Girls for National Development

By X

Women mean one half of humanity. All talks of national reconstruction are hollow without the education of women. National regeneration is possible only when educated girls are at the forefront of national development. So far it has been a male-dominated world. Women played only second fiddle to men in all walks of life. They were condemned to be within the four walls of the house. However, education has given them new confidence. The scenario is changing fast. The academic world is no longer the monopoly of men.

More and more young women are coming forward to challenge the dominance of men. The citadel of self-claimed superiority of men is cracking. Educated girls and women are contributing to the welfare of society. Name any walk of life and you will find women excelling there. They have proved to be better doctors, artists, and engineers that many of their male counterparts. However, complete literary of women remains a distant dream. Many conservative parents still suffer from superstitions and outdated beliefs. The percentage of women’s literacy among the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and the economically weaker sections is exceptionally low. Many state governments have given some special incentives to attract more and more girls to schools and colleges. It will help in exploiting women’s skills and talents for national development. It is actually the need of the hour.

9.  Write an article on “the Role of Youth in National Development” to be published in your college magazine.


Write an article on the ‘Role of Students in National Development’ for publication in your school magazine.


Role of Youth in National Development

By X

Youth are the future of a country. Any idea of national development is just a myth without the active participation of youth in it. National development is like a relay race. The old generation passes on the baton to the waiting team. The young have dreams, passions and hopes. They are impatient and dynamic. Their bubbling enthusiasm has to be regulated and utilized. Their surplus power has to be exploited for the welfare of the country. Proper guidance and direction can bring them in the forefront of national development.

The government of India has been rather slow to recognise the role of youth in national development. Even the state governments and voluntary organisations have not been much different. No doubt, the N.C.C. and the N.S.S. provide a useful platform. They train the youth of the country to be dedicated volunteers in natural calamities and in war. They have proved their worth in running relief works in the earthquake affected areas in Gujarat and elsewhere N.S.S. units have successfully utilized the youth power for national development. Be it growing more trees or keeping the environment clean or adult-literacy programmes, the young N.S.S. volunteers have done a wonderful job. The youth should be engaged in constructive and gainful works. We shouldn’t let their youthful energy go waste. Let us channelize, organise and utilize the youth for national development.

10. You are really worried about the environmental degradation. Pollution is increasing day by day and is posing a great threat to the environment and mankind. Ozone Layer is getting depleted. Write an article on ‘Environmental Pollution – A Global Problem’

Environmental Pollution – A Global Problem

By X

Degradation of the environment continues unabated. There is no doubt about it. The need of the hour is to protect and preserve the environment and the ecological balance. Pollution is increasing day by day and is posing a great threat to the environment and mankind. The menace of environmental pollution can be fought against only by creating awareness and sensitivity among the people regarding the protection of the environment. The main reason of environment degradation in India is due to rapid deforestation in the last decades.

The price of progress has been rather heavy. The depletion of the ozone layer is a danger signal. It will lead to global warming and melting of the polar glaciers. Many forest belts have been cleared away to set up industrial units. Rapid urbanization swallowed the remaining green belts. Deforestation on a large scale led to disastrous results. Famines, floods, landslides and land erosions have disturbed the ecological balance. Trees bring rain and keep the upper soil intact. Our rivers and lakes have become dumping grounds for industrial wastes, garbage dirt. They have been infected to the extent that their water has not remained fit for human consumption.

Our cities are becoming dirtier every year. Delhi, the capital of India, has earned notoriety for being the fourth most polluted city in the world. The emission of smoke from the chimneys of the factories and the guzzlers of the road has converted our cities into big gas chambers. Only a concerted effort on the part of the government, the voluntary organisations and the people in general, can help in maintaining the ecological balance. Only them this vast country will become a pleasant and clean place to live in.

11. Delhi Administration has launched a campaign against use of polythene bags. Write an article on ‘Hazards of Polythene Bags’


Hazards of Polythene Bags

By X

The recent campaign of the Delhi Administration against the use of plastic bags is a right step in the right direction. The question is : “Is carrying a polythene bag a convenience or a curse?” It is a common sight to see people leaving a departmental store carrying a purchase dangling in a polythene bag. Plastic bags have become a growing scourge. Millions of polythene bags choke and block our waterways, drains, lakes and streams. Only five percent of the hundred billion plastic bags is recycled. Polythene bags take years to bio-degrade. Some bags get snagged in trees and bushes. Some find their ways into drains and water channels. Animals mistake them for food. In animals, a polythene bag can suffocate, choke, block digestion and even cause death. Plastic and polythene bags and their remnants have been found in the stomach of birds, cows and dolphins. The pollution from plastic and polythene bags in the fourth most prevalent form of pollution.

The recent campaign of Delhi Administration is a laudable effort to change people’s habits. If the use of polythene bags is not stopped, soon we shall see our drains, water-ways, creeks and streams full of trash.

Polythene or plastic bags are synthetic substances produced by chemical reactions. They are polymers and inorganic materials. They are not biodegradable. The biggest hazard plastic and polythene bags pose is to the agricultural land. They retard the growth of the crops. Plastic wastes stop the passage of oxygen causing soil infertility.

Plastic bags stop the flow of rainwater and sewerage. It breeds germs and bacteria causing many diseases. The toxic smoke while burning plastic and polythene kills hundreds every year. Let us awake and discard the use of polythene. Switch over to cloth, jute and paper bags. The choice to be environmentally friendly is ours. Let us bequeath to posterity –clean, green and healthy earth.

12. A recent survey showed that are still many communities in India which do not welcome the birth of a girl child. Can a country which does not give equal rights to all its citizen ever dream of becoming great? Write an article giving your view on the above subject and the steps we would take to solve this problem. You are Simran/Yusuf, a citizen of Hyderabad.

A Girl Child – Not Still Welcomed by Many Communities in India

By Simran/Yusuf

Women constitute half of this world. But a recent survey showed that there are still many communities in India which don’t welcome the birth of a girl child. It is a shame that despite liberalisation and globalisation we are mentally still deeply rooted in the superstitions and beliefs of the Middle Ages and feudalism. No doubt, there are certain communities in India which consider the birth of a girl child an inauspicious burden. In a male-dominated society, the birth of a girl child is not an occasion for rejoicing. But the most unfortunate and alarming thing is that even in most prosperous states like Punjab and Haryana, foetal-killings and abortions are common to avoid the birth of girl-babies. The results have been disastrous. The six-ratio has been totally unbalanced. In Haryana and Punjab, there are only 850 females to per thousand males. Naturally, India is fast leading towards a social imbalance that will give birth to many social evils and crimes.

No country which does not give equal rights to all its citizens can ever dream of becoming great and prosperous. There should be no place for old feudal and outdated views in the minds and thinking of the people. Girls and women have proved that what men can do, they can do even better. Indira Gandhi, Amita Desai, Amrita Shergil, Nargis, Sania Mirza, Kalpna Chawla and many others have shown that they are matchless leaders, writers, painters actors, sportswomen and astronauts. If India has to progress its women must enjoy equal rights, opportunities and social status. Only 33% reservation in Panchayats and assemblies for women will not do. There should also be a comprehensive change in our outlook and thinking regarding women.

`13. Today, reckless driving has become a great threat on highways. Speeding trucks, buses and cars cause many accidents resulting in the loss of precious life and property. Roads have become death traps even for pedestrians. The need of the hour is awareness among the people. Write an article for publishing in a leading daily.


Reckless Driving – A Great Threat on Highways

By X

Driving is a pleasure. But reckless driving is a killer. We should never forget the dictum – ‘Speed thrills but kills’. But who cares? We have forgotten the road-culture and the rules of the road. The number of deaths on our roads is increasing every day. Most of the drivers of trucks and buses drive under the influence of liquor, especially at night. There are complete chaos and disorder on the roads and, especially on highways. The ‘jungle raj’ operates there. Sobriety and balance gave given place to recklessness. The result is the loss of innocent lives on the roads.

On many occasions, the Government has launched a series of safe driving campaigns through various channels of the media and other public advertisements. The propaganda campaigns aimed directly at speeding, drink driving and reckless driving have only been reduced to dead formalities.

WHO in its report on ‘Road Safety’ has revealed that more people die in road accidents in India than anywhere else in the world, including China. At least 13 people die every hour in road accidents in India. Speeding, drinking-driving, and the low use of helmet, seat belts are the main contributing factors. ‘Speed’ is the main reason behind accidents. A 5% increase in average speed leads to 10% increase in crashes and a 20% increase in fatal crashes. We must try to correct the attitude of driving community and imbibe safe driving practices in the minds of the people. Unsafe road conditions contribute to increasing highway deaths and accidents. There have been 170 fold increase in the number of motor vehicles on Indian roads in the past 50 years. On the other hand, the road network has expanded only nine folds. Safety measures for car users like airbags, crash sensors and crumple zones are not enforced in India.

No doubt, magnificent flyovers have come up in big cities. But the interests of the pedestrians have been thrown to the winds. More subways and footpaths are needed for their safe crossing. The driving licenses of the erring drivers must be confiscated. Only effective and determined steps will bring safety and security on our roads.

14. We have travelled from the stone age to the age of computers. There is an explosion of technology in the field of knowledge. Write an article on the topic entitled ‘The Future of Information Technology’. You are Ramesh/Rani.


The Future of Information Technology

By Ramesh/Rani

Time flies on wings. During the ten thousand years of human civilization, we have covered a long distance. We have travelled from the Stone Age to the age of computers. The modern age is the age of science, industry and technology. There is really an explosion of technology in the field of knowledge and information. After nuclear technology, Information Technology is the latest marvel of modern science. It has shaken the geographical boundaries and shattered conventional barriers and limits. It has revolutionized the very concept of human life. It has opened new frontiers and explored the unknown areas of human knowledge. Information Technology will play a major role in setting new standards in human life. There was a time when news travelled at the pace of post-horses. Now we have fax-machines. E-mail can receive written messages thousands of miles away within seconds. Computes have replaced human minds. The memories of computerized machines go beyond those of human minds. Internet technology has made our reach easier and convenient for any kind of recorded source of knowledge.

The future of Information Technology has been wedded to the immediate future of mankind. Be it peace or war; drought or floods; home or abroad, IT will continue playing a deciding role in all walks of life. Human hands and brain will be overshadowed by computers. Compiling, filing and scrutiny work is better done by machines. The use of IT in hospitals offices and the corporate world has made working more systematic and quick. A few computer discs can contain the knowledge and information of all our libraries. The misuse of IT can be disastrous. Hacking, jamming and various infections have a lot of potential threats and mischief. Anyway, it depends on how he uses or abuses the vast powers and potentials of Information Technology.

15. You are Nandini/Navin, Mobile phones have become a necessity and are seen in the hands of the young and old alike. Write an article on this, highlighting the crucial role of mobile phones by way of communication and in prompting business and economy. Also, point out the difficulties and dangers of using mobile phones while driving.

Crucial Role of Mobile Phones

By Nandini/Navin

Information Technology has brought a cultural revolution. The mobile phone is another milestone in IT-revolution. It has become a modern necessity. It plays a crucial role in promoting business and the economy. It has become a mixed blessing. The mobile phone has become a toy in the hands of the young and the old alike. The findings of the police tell a different story. The facts are quite revealing. The danger posed by the use of mobile phones while driving is quite real. It has resulted in careless driving causing many avoidable accidents. Certainly the mobile phone demand more judicious use.

We are living in a fast-changing world. Speed and efficiency are the watchwords of today. These days prompt and correct information means quick money. In stock-exchanges, the rates of shares change every minute. Lack of information or delay can cause huge losses. Similarly, a ring of a mobile phone can give comforting moments to a waiting mother or a wife. Our friends and relatives can contact us wherever we are. A mobile phone has become a great source of entertainment. Songs, films, music and much more can be enjoyed through them. But the mobile phone has also become a great nuisance. Criminals and dons use it to execute their operations. A gang leader operates even from behind the bars. Certainly, its use has increased the graph of crimes. For students, it has become a craze to own a mobile phone set. They use it frequently in schools and colleges. The results are not very favourable.

The mobile phone demands a careful and judicious use. We must use our good sense while using it.

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