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B.COM, B.A , B.SC 2ND SEM ENGLISH NOTES ACCORDING TO CBCS PATTERN
Now a days every university is following syllabus based on CBCS Pattern. students are facing difficulties in getting all subjects notes as per CBCS Pattern. In this post i have provided you B.COM, B.A, B.SC 2ND SEM ENGLISH NOTES. Hope you like it. Do share with your friends so they can also get the notes of new cbcs pattern
WHAT IS A REPORT?
A report is an official document written with utmost professionalism by a person having profound knowledge of the subject and a fair amount of flair for writing. A person writing a report must ponder over clarity, organisation and content so that the information presented is crystal clear) It must follow a consistent format and must naturally lead to a logical end.
Some of the important definitions of report are given below:
“A report is a communication from someone who has information to someone who wants to use that information.” -A.C. Brown
“In a very general sense a report is an account of something. It is usually an answer to a demand from some other person for information.” –Bruce Cooper
“A formal report presents in an organised form the information that has been requested by an authorised person.” – Philip S. Arhunson
“A business report is any factual objective document that serves a business purpose.” –Bovree CL & Thrill J.K
“A business report is an orderly and objective communication of factual information that serves business purpose.”- Lesikar; Pettit. & Flatly
TYPES OF REPORTS
There are different types of reports that one needs to be familiar with. Some of them are discussed here:
1. Monthly Progress Report: These are any routine progress reports that may be written monthly, bi-monthly, quarterly, half-yearly and yearly. It is different from a situation report because it only states what has happened and what was done about it during the reporting.
2. Community Project Report: These types of reports should include information about events — what actions were taken and should emphasise on the results of these actions. It is best organised into sections, corresponding to the sections of the proposal. It also gives a financial recording – details of where the money was received from, how much was spent (according to budget categories) and reasons for over- and under-spending, if any.
3. Routine Reports: The objective of the community project report is simple. However, in routine reports, the objectives of the company are different. Awareness has to be generated and people are mobilised to achieve the objectives. At times, even management training has to be given. This type of report is prepared on a routine basis to keep the management updated.
4. Field Trip Reports: Every field trip should have a purpose so a report on the field trip should begin with purpose of the trip. The purpose should justify making the trip. Technical details have to be included like date, location of place of travel, persons met (with their designations), name of the agency, time of meeting, venue, sites seen, meetings attended, etc. Make your list easy to read, easy to understand and brief, but complete. A field trip report should emphasise the results of that trip.
5. Meeting Reports: All meetings have a purpose and usually the purpose is related to achieving the objectives of the project. So, meeting reports must indicate the purpose of the meeting and progress towards achievement of the purpose.
6. Workshop Reports: After each workshop, the coordinator (with input from other facilitators, including a written report from the main trainer) should write a report. The report should not be a list of activities that took place, but must indicate the result of those activities. Overall, every report should indicate what was expected or desired with what was achieved.
Characteristics of A Good Report
- Complete and Compact Document: Report is a complete and compact written document giving updated information about a specific problem.
- Systematic Presentation of Facts: Report is a systematic presentation of facts, figures, conclusions, and recommendations. Report writers closely study the problem under investigation and prepare a report after analyzing all relevant information regarding the problem. Report is supported by facts and evidence. There is no scope for imagination in a report which is basically a factual document.
- Prepared in Writing: Reports are usually in writing. Writing reports are useful for reference purpose. It serves as a complete, compact and self-explanatory document over a long period. Oral reporting is possible in the case of secret and confidential matters.
- Provides Information and Guidance: Report is a valuable document which gives information and guidance to the management while framing future policies. It facilitates planning and decision making. Reports are also useful for solving problems faced by a business enterprise.
- Self-explanatory Document: Report is a comprehensive document and covers all aspects of the subject matter of study. It is a self-explanatory and complete document by itself.
- Acts as a Tool of Internal Communication: Report is an effective tool of communication between top executives and subordinate staff working in an organization. It provides feedback to employees and executives for decision making.
- Acts as Permanent Record: A report serves as a permanent record relating to a certain business matter. It is useful for future reference and guidance.
- Time Consuming and Costly Activity: Report writing is a time consuming, lengthy and costly activity as it involves a collection of facts, drawing conclusion and making recommendations.
Preparation of a Report
Q. Mention the various steps involved in the preparation of a report
Ans: All reports need to be clear, concise and well structured. A well-written report requires planning and preparation. The essential stages of successful report writing are described below.
Following steps involved in the preparation of the report:
Step 1- Understand the purpose of the report: It is important that you understand the purpose and requirements of your report. Keep in mind who the report is for, and why it is being written. Be sure that you understand all the instructions or requirements.
Step 2- Gather and select information: Gathering information is a time consuming and onerous task. You have to choose appropriate sources, read them and select only relevant information. Ensure that your sources are authentic.
Step 3- Organize your content: A great deal of information is collected during the research period. Sort out and select the content relevant to your report. Group together with the points that are related. They can be put together under sections or chapters. Thereafter, decide the sequence in which they have to be presented. Choose an order that is logical and easy to follow.
Step 4- Analyze your material: Before writing your first draft for the report, analyze the material you have gathered critically. Look through carefully at the material, thinking about flaws and limitations in evidence gathered, variable conclusions that can be drawn from it.
Step 5- Write the report: After your material has been organized into appropriate sections and headings you can write the rest draft of your report. Some people write the summary and contents page at the end when they know exactly what will be included. Write clearly and concisely. Avoid irrelevant, lengthy and confusing explanations or content.
Step 6-Review and redraft: Take a break before you review your first draft. It is essential to get an appropriate perspective on the draft. You may rewrite or reorganize certain sections after the review. Assess, without any bias, the report from the perspective of a reader in terms of clarity, simplicity and relevance.
Step 7: Presentation: Once you are ready with your final draft, check the presentation of the report. Make sure that the wording of each chapter/section/subheading is clear and accurate. Ensure proper sequencing in the numbering of chapters, sections and appendices. Verify that you have mentioned all your sources and references. Check your report for errors of spelling or grammar. Errors in presentation or expression create a poor impression and can make the report di cult to read
Format of various reports
Newspaper Reports: These are accounts of current events and happenings
By (name of the author)
Place, date (date is not always mentioned)
Body of the report.
Magazine Reports: These are written to give an account of specific events that have taken place, for example,India International Fashion Week, School Annual Day etc.
By (name of the author)
Body of the report.
Formal/ Official Reports: These are complex documents often of important projects and proposals, eg. results of studies and experiments, proposals for launching a new product etc.
Give details of the task and the reasons for it
Information, resources and material used,
Description of task
Your evaluation and suggestions.
- Title page-include
- To: name of person report being submitted to
- From: name and department
- Date of submission
- Acknowledgements: A list of people and organizations that helped you in collecting data, research and in other aspects of getting the report ready.
- Table of contents: a clear list of all sections and subsections of the report.
- Summary: A summary of the major points, conclusions, and recommendations should be written to give a general idea of the report.
- Introduction: Explain the problem and make clear to the reader why the report has been written.
- Findings: Give details of the information collected, material used, methods utilized, and results arrived at.
- Conclusions: Include implications and inferences of your findings based on the facts described in your main body. The importance of the study is discussed in this section.
- Recommendations: Give suggestions and proposals based on information and data collected.
- Bibliography/References: Give a list of all the sources you have referred within your text.
Official report writing as such does not have a specific, fixed format. Many organizations have their own formats and styles that are used by their employees. Moreover, there are differences in types of official reports, for example, company annual reports, audit reports, financial reports etc.
Daughter of Gardener Tops Board Exam`
By Riya Sharma
Bhubneshwar, May 12: Suman Nayak, the daughter of a municipal gardener, Om Nayak, has topped the Odisha Board Senior Secondary Examination with 98.8% marks. Her success has been lauded by the sta members of her school ‘The Government Senior Secondary School, Malkaganj’, the Odisha Education board and the State Education Minister.
When the news was conveyed to Suman by her classmates, she did not believe them. It was only when the school principal called her that the reality sunk in. Suman’s father, Om Nayak, is overjoyed at the news. He said, “Suman was always a bright student. I have made all e orts to provide her with the best education despite my meager means”. He hopes that she will be able to continue her education in spite of his financial constraints.
Suman attributes her success to her parents and teachers. She said that the school teachers had provided her with all possible help by giving her extra time and attention along with books and moral support. Her perseverance, dedication and hard work are spoken highly of by her teachers.
When asked about her future plans, Suman said she wished to become a doctor. However, she was unsure if she could pursue her dream because of financial problems. She hopes that she will be able to secure a scholarship and get funding by the government.
The Times Group has started an initiative to help Suman fulfil her aspirations. Anyone who wishes to contribute to Suman’s education can send the amount by cheque to, ‘Suman Nayak Education Fund’, The Times of India, M.G. Road, Bhubneshwar.
Commercial tax department to train its officials and industry participants
TNN | May 6, 2017
INDORE: With an aim to become well equipped with the new Goods and Services Tax (GST) and address concerns of dealers, the commercial tax department started to train its officials and industry participants from Friday. The department has selected 25 locations in the state, covering 23 cities on different dates.
Manoj Choubey, deputy commissioner, commercial tax department said, “Our aim is to be fully prepared to handle GST from July. We started a training session from Friday that will most likely extend till the end of the month across Madhya Pradesh.”
Initially, the department will train all its officials and then conduct interactive training sessions for dealers.
GST — to be implemented in the country from July 2017 — aims to provide a single-window tax structure across the country, simplifying tax refunds and inter-state transfer of goods and ensure merchant compliances.
According to the tax department, about 2,200 of its officials across the state will be trained by experts. In Indore, two locations have been set by the department to conduct training sessions.
There are about 3 lakh dealers across the state registered with the commercial tax department of which close to 50,000 are from Indore, tax experts said.
“We plan to conduct corporate training as well under the session. The training session will bring clarity and technical knowhow about dealing with tax returns and other things under GST,” Choubey said.
Industry participants have raised serious concerns about various norms under GST stating the lack of clarity and training will lead to difficulties in handling GST. This will prove especially true for small units that are not tech-savvy and do not have access to the internet.
They said small industries are not computer literate and they will have to employ additional manpower to le returns every month.
(Source: The Times of India)
THE WORLD BOOK FAIR
Hyderabad, 20th March 2014. The World Book Fair which lasted for a month was the hot topic of all book lovers of Hyderabad. The World Book Fair was inaugurated by Hon’ble Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh on 20th August 2014. The venue of the fair was the Nizam College Ground. Almost all the leading publishers of the country participated in the fair. Many prestigious international publishing houses also registered their presence there. Every publishing house displayed its old and latest publications on the shelves. The display of books was quite impressive and tempting. The international publishing houses which made their presence felt were ‘Penguin’, ‘Modern Library, ‘Oxford University Press’, ‘Cambridge University Press, ‘Macmillan’ and ‘Orient Longman’. Among the Indian publishing houses, ‘Rupa’, ‘Rajkamal’, ‘Atma Ram & Sons’, ‘Rajpal and Sons’, ‘S. Chand & Co.’ and ‘Laxmi Publications (Pvt) Ltd.’ were the leading names that participated in the World Book Fair. Many famous men of letters visited the fair. They included Nirmal Verma, Rajender Yadav, Namvar Singh, Kamla Das and Khushwant Singh. Literature particularly the fiction, dominated the show. Computer and Engineering books were also in great demand. School and college students visited the fair in large numbers and bought their favourite books. Unfortunately, the high prices of books took their buyers away from them.
A DEVASTATING FIRE
Bangalore: 10th May, 2014. Fire accidents are the worst of disasters. I had the misfortune of witnessing one of the most horrible fire accidents of recent times, the Kumbakonam fire accident. It caused an unprecedented loss of human lives and property. It was a beautiful morning. The whole town woke up to the sounds of drums and pipes. After all, it was a special day—the day of ‘Abhishek’ ceremony in the temple-town. Thousands of people had gathered there from different parts of Tamil Nadu and other states. Suddenly, an electric spark produced by a short circuit caused a fire in one corner of the huge ‘pandal. Worst of it all, the tents were made of highly inflammable synthetic material. Within seconds the place was converted into a blazing inferno. A devastating fire engulfed the whole area. Thousands of people were trapped under the burning tents. Human cries rent many hearts. Local people rushed to the site for rescue operations. The police and the fire brigade came late as usual. It took hours to control and put out the fire but not before more than 200 people were charred to death.
St. Agnes Public School Celebrates Annual Day
By Manoj Upadhaya
St. Agnes School, Green Park, celebrated its annual day on May 2 with great fanfare. Mr Arvind Kejriwal, the Chief Minister of Delhi, was the chief guest at the function. The programme began with the lighting of the lamp by the chief guest. It was followed by a welcome address and the presentation of the school annual report by the principal, Ms Swati Mehra.
The rest item of the cultural program was presented by the primary wing. It was a musical drama on the necessity of protecting the environment for future generations. The little children expressed themselves brilliantly bringing out the perils of destroying our planet.
The middle school showcased the culture of India through folk dances. Each dance was preceded by beautiful audiovisual effects, depicting the main cultural features of the region. The colourful dresses of the graceful Garba dancers, the vigour and energy of Bhangra dancers, and lilting music with elegant swaying movements of the Bihu and Hajgiri dancers from the North East, enthralled the audience.
The senior school pupils enacted a play depicting the dangers of the internet and social media addiction for adults and children. They brought out the message poignantly. Every child and adult was moved by the acting and story of a young life ruined by social media addiction. The audience gave a loud and long round of applause for all participants.
The grand finale was the speech by Mr Arvind Kejriwal. He highly praised the performances by the children and appreciated the thought-provoking themes chosen by them. The programme concluded with a vote of thanks by Sagar Mehta, the school head boy.
Almost 900 H1N1 cases reported: WHO Headlines Today
Geneva, May 4, 2009
Though the World Health Organisation’s (WHO) alert level remains one short of a global pandemic, 18 countries have now reported laboratory-confirmed cases.
The number of suspected H1N1 flu cases across the globe has touched 898 with 20 confirmed deaths so far. Though the World Health Organisation’s (WHO) alert level remains one short of a global pandemic, 18 countries have now reported laboratory-confirmed cases.
Colombia became the first South American country to report a case. However, US health officials are cautiously optimistic that the flu isn’t as dangerous as it was first feared.
Mexico remains the worst affected with 506 cases and 19 deaths. However, the country’s Health Secretary feels that the epidemic is now declining.
But the WHO is not dropping the level – five alert just yet.
(Source: India Today)
Ganga River Cleaning Project
To: Mr. Sunil Gupta, Joint Secretary, Ministry of Environment
From: Mr. Nilesh Upadhaya, Research Officer, Ministry of Environment
Date:15th April 2017
Subject: Cleaning the Ganga River
I am deeply grateful to all the people who extended their invaluable help and support in the research and writing of the report. I wish to especially thank Mr. Sushil Dhar, Mr. Premnath Singh , Mr. Rajiv Kumar and Mr. Pramod Bansal.
Our National River, Ganga, remains one of the most polluted in the world, denying vast populations of their rights to clean water. The problems associated with the pollution of Ganga are numerous. It has multiple causes related to the issue. The contamination of the water affects humans, flora and fauna as well as the ecology of areas along the river. However, there are solution and remedies which can be implemented to save the dying river.
The river Ganga is often referred to as ‘the dying river’ due to its continuing pollution for decades. This report attempts to state the current situation and the damage to the environment and ecosystem being caused by pollution of the river. Several solutions to clean the river have been suggested to restore the river to its pristine state.
- Over exploitation- Exploitation of Ganga’s water has rendered long stretches of the river completely dry for much of the year. Almost 80% of the water is diverted for agricultural purposes.
- Dumping of sewage waste- accounts for 80% of pollution in the Ganga River.
- Discarding Industrial waste- Toxic industrial effluents dumped into the river account for 20% of the pollution.
- Agricultural pollution- Water intensive farming and run-o from inorganic farms, including dangerous chemicals like DDT and HDH, add to the pollution.
- Disposal of solid waste- Tons of plastic, polythene, images of gods, and other trash are thrown into the Ganga River, choking her waters and blocking existing sewerage systems.
- Harvesting electricity-The varied dams built along the Ganga have affected her flow, thus
effecting the ecology of the river.
- Ecological degradation- deforestation, encroachment, tourism and other human activities are damaging the fragile ecosystems the Ganga River supports.
- The spread of disease: Drinking polluted water can cause cholera or typhoid infections, along with diarrhea.
- Affects body organs: The consumption of highly contaminated water can cause injury to the heart and kidneys.
- Harms the food chain: Toxins within water can harm aquatic organisms, thus breaking a link in the food chain.
- Causes algae in water: Waste matter causes Algae to in a water source. Bacteria feed o the algae, decreasing the amount of oxygen in the water. The decreased oxygen causes harm to other organisms living in the water.
- Flooding: The erosion of soil into waterways causes flooding, especially with heavy rainfall.
- Harms animals: Birds that get into oil-contaminated water die from exposure to cold water and air due to feather damage. Other animals are affected when they eat dead fish in contaminated streams.
The effects of water pollution are not always immediate. However, water pollution has a huge impact on our lives. With knowledge, consideration and preparation, water pollution can be decreased. It does not take much effort — just a little thought.
There are several steps that can be taken to help prevent water pollution from getting worse.
- Take steps to conserve soil. It results in conserving water and water life. Planting vegetative covers,strict erosion management and implementing beneficial farming methods are just a few of the many possible approaches to soil conservation.
- Restore ecological flows at every point along the Ganga’s course.
- Prevent and curtail all wastewater, starting with sewage and industrial waste, from mixing with the river. Install sewage and effluent treatment plants.
- Promote massive water conservation and water resource management, including rainwater harvesting schemes.
- Involve stakeholders in all ways to clean the river.
- Implement policies and plans that connect state and local bodies, addressing their challenges and encouraging training and capacity-building programs.
- Start mass awareness campaigns and media-based water eco-consciousness campaigns that get people to not only stop pollution but to also become an active part of the solution.
Conclusion: Cleaning the Ganga river is a feasible and possible project. It requires strict implementation of policies formulated by the government, the involvement of all stakeholders and involving the general population at every level in the e ort to reach the goal of having an uncontaminated river.
Bibliography/ References :
- Conaway, Cameron (2015-09-23). “The Ganges River is Dying Under the Weight of Modern India”. Newsweek. Retrieved 2017-04-11.
- “Ganja receives 2,900 million litres of sewage daily’”. http://www.hindustantimes.com/. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- “The WaterHub”. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- A Sacred River Endangered by Global Warming 17 June 2007.
- Wohl, Ellen E. 2012. A world of rivers: environmental change on ten of the world’s great rivers. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Ganga, Yamuna banks cleaned 12 November 2013.