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B.COM, B.A , B.SC 2ND SEM ENGLISH NOTES ACCORDING TO CBCS PATTERN
Now a days every university is following syllabus based on CBCS Pattern. students are facing difficulties in getting all subjects notes as per CBCS Pattern. In this post i have provided you B.COM, B.A, B.SC 2ND SEM ENGLISH NOTES. Hope you like it. Do share with your friends so they can also get the notes of new cbcs patter
Definition of Dialogue
A dialogue is a literary technique in which writers employ two or more characters to be engaged in conversation with one another. In literature, it is a conversational passage, or a spoken or written exchange of conversation in a group, or between two persons directed towards a particular subject. The use of dialogues can be seen back in classical literature, especially in Plato’s Republic. Several other philosophers also used this technique for rhetorical and argumentative purposes. Generally, it makes literary work enjoyable and lively.
Types of Dialogue
There are two types of dialogue in literature:
- Inner Dialogue – In inner dialogue, the characters speak to themselves and reveal their personalities. To use inner dialogue, writers employ literary techniques like stream of consciousness or dramatic monologue. We often find such dialogues in the works of James Joyce, Virginia Wolf, and William Faulkner.
- Outer Dialogue – Outer dialogue is a simple conversation between two characters, used in almost all types of fictional works.
Main rules for writing dialogue:
- Each speaker gets a new paragraph. Every time someone speaks, you show this by creating a new paragraph. Yes, even if your characters are only saying one word, they get new paragraphs.
- Each paragraph is indented. The only exception for this is if it’s the start of a chapter or after a scene break, where the first line is never indented, including with dialogue.
- Punctuation for what’s said goes inside the quotation marks. Any time the punctuation is a part of the person speaking, they go inside the quotes so the reader knows how the dialogue is said.
- Long speeches with several paragraphs don’t have end quotations. You’ll see more on this below, but overall, if one character is speaking for so long they have separate paragraphs, the quotation marks on the end are removed, but you start the next paragraph with them.
- Use single quotes if the person speaking is quoting someone. If you have a character who says, “Man, don’t you love it when girls say, ‘I’m fine’?”, the single quotes indicate what someone else says.
Examples of Dialogue Writing
Q1.Sameer had to catch a train to go to attend an interview in Chandigarh, but he reached the station late due to traffic jam on roads and so he could not buy a ticket and boarded the train as the train was about to leave. Write a dialogue between Sameer and the ticket-checker.
Ticket Checker: Will you please show me your ticket?
Sameer: I am sorry, I don’t have one.
Ticket Checker: Travelling without a ticket? Don’t you know that it is a crime?
Sameer: Yes sir, I do know that. But you see when I reached the station, the train was about to leave and so I had to board the train without a ticket. Won’t you make me a ticket, please?
Ticket Checker: Yes I can make a ticket, but you have to pay a fine of Rs. Mil- along with the fare.
Sameer: No problem sir, here is the money.
Ticket Checker: That’s all right, but be careful in future.
Sameer: I will, sir.Definitely.
Q2.Mr. Mehta wanted to buy a suitable family car. So, one fine morning he went to a showroom to have a look at the various options available and to decide on the variant that most suited him and his family. Write a dialogue between Mr Mehta and the sales representative in a suitable way.
Sales Representative: Welcome sir. Please have a seat.
Mr Mehta: Thank you very much. I am interested in buying a family car.
Sales Representative: Very well, sir. But first of all please tell me your budget
We deal in the country’s most favoured brand Yakuti and we have a number of options that may suit you.
Mr Mehta: Well, my budget is between 4 and 5 lacs.
Sales Representative: Also, please let us know how many members there are in your family?
Mr. Mehta: We are four, my wife, two daughters and I and we want a petrol car, not diesel one.
Sales Representative : (Showing a brochure) Sir, I Would recommend you our best-seller brand ‘Glitz’.
Mr. Mehta: Why do you suggest this brand of car?
Sales Representative: It has the most advanced engine that gives a good mileage and all the features like, power steering, power windows, airbags and comfortable design and space.
Mr. Mehta : That’s fine. Please give me this brochure and I will discuss the details with my wife and we will together visit you tomorrow.
Sales Representative: Very well sir. You are welcome.
Q3. Write a dialogue between two friends on the choice of career
Sujon : Hello Jamia, how are you ?
Jamia : Fine, thank you. And how about you ?
Sujon : I’m also fine, Jamia. We are in intermediate class. So we must choose our career now.
Jamia : You are quite right. Success in life depends on the right choice of career.
Sujon : We must choose our career properly. May I know your choice of career?
Jamia : Yes, of course. I have decided to become a doctor. Do you like this profession?
Sujon : Yes I do. It is a good profession. Could you tell me why you have chosen this profession?
Jamia : Most of our people are deprived of the service of the doctors.
Sujon : Yes there are shortage of good doctors in our country. They people who live in the villages cannot consult a good doctor.
Jamia : I want to serve the people.
Sujon : Are you willing to go to the villagers if necessary?
Jamia : Yes, of course. Through this profession I will be able to earn money honestly. Well, could you tell me about your choice of career?
Sujon : Of course. I want to be an agriculture officer.
Jamia : Most students like to be doctor, Engineer or administrator. Why not you?
Sujon : Our country is an agricultural country. Our economy depends on agriculture.
Jamia : Yes, it is right. Please tell me about your plan.
Sujon : I will get myself admitted into an Agricultural University. After completing my education I will join the service of agriculture cadre. I will make research on agriculture.
Jamia : It’s a noble profession too.
Sujon : I’ll teach the farmers about the modern method of cultivation.
Jamia : I appreciate your plan.
Sujon : Choosing career is not enough. We must work hard to fulfill our plan.
Jamia : Of course. We must do well in the H.S.C Examination, otherwise we will not be able to become a doctor or an agriculture officer.
Sujon : Of course.Thank you, Jamia. It was really nice speaking to you.
Jamia: You’re welcome. Goodbye. See you again.
Q4. A Dialogue between Two Friends about the Bad Effects of Smoking
Sujon: Hello, Sumon! How are you?
Sumon: Thanks, I am fine. How are you?
Sujon: Thanks, I am also fine. What’s the smell coming out from your mouth?
Sumon: Nothing. It’s the smell of smoking.
Sujon: Smoking! Oh my God! You are a smoker!
Sumon: Why are you so excited? Smoking is nothing so bad.
Sujon: Not bad? Don’t you know the bad effects of smoking?
Sumon: If smoking is bad, why so many people smoke all over the world?
Sujon: They smoke because they don’t understand the bad effects. Do you know that smoking causes cancer?
Sujon: Yes, cancer. Smoking causes many other diseases. It also affects our lunge.
Sumon: But smoking makes people smart.
Sujon: It’s a false notion. People hate smokers. Besides, smoking the beginning of drug addiction.
Sumon: I didn’t think like you.
Sujon: So, It is high time you gave up smoking.
Sumon: Of course. I will not smoke further.
Sujon: And you should persuade people not to smoke.
Sumon: Thank you very much for your valuable advice.
Sujon: You are most welcome. I have to go now.
Sumon: Bye. See you later.
Q5. Read the following paragraph carefully and build a dialogue between the girl and the counsellor based on the information given below:
Choosing a career is never easy. With so many options available it is difficult to decide which one is best for you. Caught in this dilemma a 16-year-old girl, just out of class ten decides to visit a career counsellor, “Sir, how do I know which stream is best for me? “asks the girl. She is told by the counsellor about certain aptitude tests that she could take. The girl indicates a preference for commerce and business management. The counsellor asks the girl to come the next day and take the necessary tests. The girl thanks him and takes leave. She is relieved that the conflict in her mind would be resolved the next day.
Girl: Good afternoon, Sir.
Counsellor: Good afternoon, what brings you here?
Girl (nervously): Sir, I have just appeared for my class ten exams and I am thoroughly confused as to which stream to choose and which career to pursue.
Counsellor (smiling): Well I’m sure we here at the Career.
Girl: But how do I decide, Sir?
Counsellor: We’ll identify your strengths, that is, your aptitude. And you must tell us about your interests. Wherever the two meet, that’ll be the ideal choice for you. By the way, what is your area of interest?
Girl: Sir, I am interested in pursuing the commerce stream. My dream is to do business management and work for a top multinational firm.
Counsellor: That is wonderful! It’s always good to think big, but without losing touch with reality. I’m not trying to discourage you, but you should keep your options often and this where the aptitude test will help you. You may come tomorrow and we’ll administer the tests. The following week we’ll have an individual counselling session based on the results of the tests.
Girl: (looking relieved): Thank you very much, Sir, I will be here tomorrow. What time should I come?
Counsellor: Be here at ten o’clock sharp.
Girl: Certainly sir, I am already feeling optimistic and relieved. So many choices were really beginning to confuse me. I felt I would never be able to make the right decision.
Counsellor (smiling encouragingly): Of course, you will make the right decision. That’s what we’re here for! All the best and be here tomorrow.
Q6. Given below are some facts throwing light on why everybody has a different smell. Using this information write a dialogue between Tania and her doctor where the doctor answers Tanis’s queries on the same.
Police dogs can identify criminals on the basis of the smell of their bodies. This clearly proves that each of one us has a special kind of body smell. On the basis of certain experiments, it has been established that twins, too, have a slightly different smell and dogs with some special training can identify between twins. But why does everyone have a particular smell?
It is believed that the smell arising out of an individual’s body depends upto some extent on an oily liquid secreted by certain sweat glands in the body. But the scent is mainly the product of bacteria that feed on sweat. When a child is born, he picks up many bacteria from the mother as well as from the nurses and doctors who touch him. Their number increases as the child come in further contact with others. The number of bacteria on the skin is more in the moist region and less in the dry region of the skin.
Within a few days of birth, many different kinds of bacteria settle down permanently on our skin. The types of bacteria may differ from person to person and these product different types of odour in different persons which is why different persons have a different smell.
Tania: Good morning, doctor. Please may I come in?
Doctor: Please come in. Have a seat.
Tania: Thank you, doctor. I wanted to ask you a question, and that is, does everyone have a special kind of body small?
Doctor: Yes, that’s true. In fact, even twins have a slightly different smell. And you know police dogs can identify people on the basis of their body smell.
Tania: But why is it so? I mean why do people smell differently?
Doctor: The small arising out of an individual’s body depends upto some extent on an oily liquid secreted by certain sweat glands in the body.
Tania: Doctor, is it also true that this scent is mainly the product of some bacteria that feed on the sweat?
Doctor: Yes, when a child is born, he picks up many bacteria from the mother, as well as from the nurses and doctors who touch him. Their numbers mereases as the child comes into further contact with others. Within a few days of birth, many different kinds of bacteria settle down permanently on our skin. These bacteria differ from person to person and produce different types of odor in different individuals. Which is why different people have different smell?
Tania: Thank you very much, doctor. That was really very informative. Have a nice day, goodbye!
Q7. This is an excerpt from the novel Love Story by Erich Segal. Though the entire section is not prose and is conversational in nature, the same has been transcoded into a new form by changing it into pure dialogue.
I ambled over to the reserve desk to get one of the tomes that would bail me out on the morrow. They were two girls working there. I asked one of them, “Do you have The waning of the Middle Ages?” She shot a glance a glance up at me. “Do you have your own library?” “I am not talking about legality. I am talking ethics, you guys have five million books. We have a few lousy thousand.” Christ, a superior-being type! The kind who think since the ratio of Radcliffe to Harvard is five to one, the girls must be five times as smart. I normally cut these type to ribbons, but just then I badly needed that goddamn book, “Listen, I need that goddamn book”, “Would you please watch your profanity. Preppie?” she said, “What makes you so sure I went to prep school?” “You look stupid and rich”, she said, “You’re wrong,” I protested, “I am actually smart and poor,” Oh no! I am smart and poor, “She said. I asked, “what the hell makes you so smart?” “I would not go for coffee with you, “she answered. “Listen – I would not ask you, “I replied, “That’s what makes you so stupid.” She replied.
Oliver: Do you have the Waning of the Middle Ages?
Jennifer: Do you have your own library?
Oliver: Listen, Harvard is allowed to use the Radcliff library.
Jennifer: I am not talking legality. I am talking ethics. You guys have five million books. We have a few lousy thousand.
Oliver: (thinking) Listen, I need that goddamn book.
Jennifer: Would you watch your profanity, Preppie.
Oliver: What makes you so sure I went to prep school?
Jennifer: You look stupid and rich.
Oliver: I am actually smart and poor.
Jennifer: Oh no! Preppie. I am smart and poor.
Oliver: What the hell makes you so smart?
Jennifer: I would not go out for coffee with you.
Oliver: Listen – I wound not ask you.
Jennifer: That’s what makes you so stupid.
Q7. Given below is an account of what three friends set out to do and how the day unfolded itself. The same has been transcoded into real-life dialogue.
Anu, Shuchi and Anil went to several shops on the mall, Shimla to conduct a survey on the use of polythene bags. They told the shopkeepers that they had come to inquire about the use of polythene bags and paper bags given to the customers along with the items the purchased informing them that they were doing so on behalf of the ‘Eco – club’ being run in their school by W.E.F.N. i.e. World Wide Fund for Nature.
After wishing the shop owner of Ramdas and Sons a good afternoon, they asked him if he had some time to spare. He replied in affirmative. On repeating the question they had been asking in each shop, they were surprised to know from the shop owner that paper bags were used in his shop. As it was the only shop from where such a response was recorded, the three were happy and also a little suspicious. They further asked the owner to give them a bag or two as sapless – a request that was turned down immediately. They showed him the bags collected from other shops and repeated their request. But he continued to refuse and after some time left the counter. As he disappeared inside the storeroom. Anu, Anil and Shuchi exchanged knowing glances and smiled.
(Anu Shuchi and Anil reach the counter in Ramdas and Sons for their survey.)
All three: Good afternoon, sir.
Owner: Good afternoon.
Shuchi: Sir, we are conducting a survey on behalf of the ‘Eco-club’ being run by WWFN that is World-Wide Fund for Nature in our school. We are going from shop to shop getting details of polythene bags and paper bags used in ships. Could you spare five minutes for us, please?
Owner: Why not, sure. Ask what you want to.
Anu: Sir, could you please tell us which carry-bags are used in your shop-paper or polythene.
Owner: We use only paper bags.
Anil: Only paper bags sir? That’s surprising. You know this is the only ship to give such a response out of all those we have covered so far.
Anu: Sir, we shall mention this in our speech.
Owner: Thank you.
Shuchi: Sir, we have been collecting carry-bags as samples from each ship. Could you too give us one of your paper-bags?
Owner: I did not know …… these paper bags cost us a lot.
Anil: Sir, if you do not mind, we could pay for it.
Owner: No I do not think I can do that.
Shuchi: Please sir, we have paid at many other shops. Owner ignores them and goes into the store at the back of the ship. As the owner leaves, the three smile at each other.