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UNIT – 14
CHALLENGES TO AND Restoration OF CONGRESS SYSTEM
Table of Contents
VERY SHORT ANSWER (1 Mark)
1. In India, which year was labeled as the ‘dangerous decade’?
Ans. In India 1960’s were labeled as the dangerous decade.
2. To which state did Lal Bahadur Shastri belong?
Ans. Lal Bahadur Shastri belonged to Uttar Pradesh.
3. Who became successor of Lal Bahadur Shastri as Prime Minister of India?
Ans. Indira Gandhi became the successor of Lal Bahadur Shastri as Prime Minister of India.
4. Which year was considered as a landmark year in India’s political and electoral history?
Ans. 1967 was considered as a landmark year in India’s political and electoral history.
5. Name the full form of DMK.
Ans. Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam was the full form of D.M.K.
6. When was the system of coalition started in India?
Ans. In the year 1967 the system of coalition started in India.
7. To which MLA did the phrase ‘Aya Ram, Gaya Ram’ belong?
Ans. The phrase ‘Aya Ram, Gaya Ram’ belongs to Gaya Lal, a M.L.A from Haryana.
8. When the fourth general election was held?
Ans. In 1967 the fourth general election was held.
9. How many seats were secured by the Indian National Congress in the Lok-Sabha in 1967 election?
Ans. The Indian National congress secured 283 seats in the Lok Sabha in 1967 election.
10. What is the meaning of defection?
Ans. Defection means an elected MLA and MP leave the political party on whose symbol they are elected and joint other political party.
11. What do you mean by syndicate?
Ans. Syndicate refers to a group of powerful and influential leaders within the congress party. It was an informal name given to a group of congress party leader who controlled the party’s decision making.
12. Write the full form of SVD.
Ans. The full form of S.V.D is Sanyukt Vidhayak Dal.
13. When Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru died?
Ans. Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru died in May 1964.
14. Say the correct word:
(a) Lal Bahadur Shastri was the (first/second/third) Prime Minister of India.
Ans. Lal Bahadur Shastri was the second Prime Minister of India.
(b) The famous slogan ‘Jai Jawan Jai Kishan’ was made by Indira Gandhi/Morarji Desai/Lal Bahadur Shastri)
Ans. The famous slogan ‘Jai Jawan Jai Kishan’ was made by Lal Bahadur Shastri.
(c) The Congress ‘syndicate was led by (Karpoori Thakur/K. Kamraj/S.Nijamingappa)
Ans. The congress ‘Syndicate was led by K. Kamraj
(d) The election were held in India in (1967/1977/1982)
Ans. The election were held in India in 1967
(e) Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) belongs to (Uttar Pradesh/Tamil Nadu/Madhya Pradesh).
Ans. Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam belong to Tamil Nadu.
(f) The era of coalition govt. begin in (1971/1989/1969/1967).
Ans. The era of coalition govt. begin in 1967.
(g) Who was the leader of Syndicate? K. Kamraj/S.K. Pabil/N. Sanjeeva Reddy/All of the above.
Ans. K. Kamraj.
(h) Who gave a slogan of ‘Indira Hatao’?
Ans. Grand Alliance, the non congress opposition alliance gave slogan of Indira Hatao.
15. Why were 1960s labeled as the dangerous decade?
Ans. 1960’s was labeled as the dangerous decade because some unresolved problem.
16. When did the era of coalition government be gain?
Ans. In 1967
17. Who was the founder of Congress Socialist ‘Party’.
Ans. Jay Prakash Narayan
18. Who becomes the Prime Minister of India after Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru?
Ans. Lal Bahadur Shastri
19. When Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru died?
Ans. In 1964
20. Write one factor that led to the popularity of Indira Gandhi govt. in the year 1970?
Ans. For initiating the programme of ‘Garibi Hatao’
21. Which party was the main opposition in the Lok Sabha in 1967?
22. Why was the political successor of Lal Bahadur Shastri?
Ans. Indira Gandhi
23. Which of the following statement about the Grand Alliance of 1971 is correct?
(a) Was formed by non-communist, non-Congress party.
(b) Had a clear political and ideological programme.
(c) Was formed by all non-Congress parties.
Ans. Was formed by non-communist, non-Congress Party.
VERY SHORT ANSWER (2 Mark)
1. What were the two challenges faced by India from 1964 to 1966 during Lal Bahadur Shastri’s brief Prime Minister Ship? 
Ans. The two challenges faced by India from 1964 to 1966 during Lal Bahadur Shastri is brief Prime Minister Ship were –
- During this time India was recovering from the economic implications of the war with China.
- Food crisis took place in his regime. India saw drought in several states due to consecutive monsoon failure that further led to low food productivity.
2. When and why did congress face challenge of political succession second time?
Ans. Congress face challenges of political succession second time, after the death of Lal Bahadur Shastri. It because of –
- There was an intense competition between Morarji Desai and Indira Gandhi for the post of Prime Minister.
- Morarji Desai had earlier served as chief Minister of Bombay state (today’s Gujarat and Maharashtra) and also as a Minister at the centre while, Indira Gandhi the daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru had been congress president and also the union minister for information in the Shastri cabinet.
3. What do you know about Lal Bahadur Shastri?
Ans. Lal Bahadur Shastri was born in 1904 in Uttar Pradesh. He was unanimously chosen as the leader of the congress parliamentary party and thus became the country’s next Prime Minister. He participated in the freedom movement since 1930. He was the prime minister of India from 1964 to 1966. He had been a minister of UP cabinet, general secretary of congress. He coined the famous slogan “Jai Jawan Jai Kisan.”
4. How fourth general election jolted the congress?
Ans. The electoral verdict of fourth general elections of 1967 jolted the congress party –
- The congress was facing the electorate for the first time without Nehru.
- The congress did manage to get a majority in Lok Sabha, but with its lowest tally of seats and share of votes since 1952.
5. Name the two leaders who were known for the following two slogans?
(a) ‘Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan’
(b) ‘Aya Ram, Gaya Ram’
Ans. (a) ‘Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan’ – Lal Bahadur Shastri
(b) ‘Aya Ram, Gaya Ram’ – Gaya Lal.
6. Explain the term ‘Aya Ram Gaya Ram’? How this tem originates?
Ans. The term “Aya Ram, Gaya Ram” refers to describe the practice of frequent floor-crossing by the legislators. After the fourth-general election defection became a frequent phenomenon in the politics of India. The term “Aya Ram, Gaya Ram” specially refers to Gaya Lal a MLA in Haryana. In the year 1967 Gaya Lal changed his party thrice in a fortnight.
7. What does the word ‘Political Earthquake’s signify in Indian Politics?
Ans. The word ‘Political Earthquake signifies the Political disaster of congress in the fourth general election in Indian Politics. Half the ministers in Indira Gandhi’s cabinet were defeated. Many senior and experienced congress men like Kamraj, S.K. Patil, Atulya Ghosh and K.B. Sahay.
8. What is Non-congressism?
Ans. The opposition parties of congress come together to form anti-congress fronts in the fourth general elections. This coming together of anti-congress opposition parties is called the strategy of non-congressism. The parties opposed to the congress realized that the division of their votes kept the congress in power. Thus, parties that were entirely different and disparate in their programmes and ideology got together to form anti-congress fronts in some states and entered into electoral adjustment of sharing seats in others.
9. Give the status of S.V.D.
Ans. The election of 1967 brought into picture the phenomenon of coalitions. Since no single party had got majority, various non-congress parties came together to form joint legislative parties that supported non-congress government. That is why these governments came to be described as SVD or Sanyukt Vidhayak Dal governments.
10. Which party was the main opposition in the Lok Sabha in 1967?
Ans. The Swatantra party was the main opposition party in the 1967 elections. The congress won 283 seats whereas the Swatantra party captured 44 seats. 8.68% of the vote was pulled in favour of Swatantra Party.
11. Explain the term ‘Grand Alliance’.
Ans. Grand Alliance was formed by non-communist and non-congress political parties. It was formed in 1971. The SSP, PSP, Bharatiya Jana Sangh, Swatantra party and the Bharatiya Kranti Dal were the members of Grand Alliance. It was an electoral alliance formed with the objective to oppose Indira Gandhi.
12. Explain the term ‘Whip”.
Ans. During the Presidential election of 1969 the then Congress president S. Nijaingapa issued a whip all the congress MPs and MLAs to vote in favour of Sanjeeva Reddy, the official candidate of the party.
13. Write few lines about Morarji Desai.
Ans. Morarji Desai was born in 1896. He was a freedom fighter and a prominent Gandhian leader. He was a proponent of Khadi naturopathy and prohibition. He had been the chief minister of Bombay state. Deputy Prime Minister (1967-69). He joined congress (o) after the split in the party. He had also been the Prime Minister from 1977 to 1979. Morarji Desai was the first Prime Minister belonging to a non-congress party.
14. When did Shastri’s Prime Minister Ship come to an end? Who was the Political successor of Lal Bahadur Shastri?
Ans. Lal Bahadur Shastri’s Prime Minister ship came to an abrupt end on 10 January 1966, when he suddenly expired in Tashkent, Then in USSR and currently the capital of Uzbekistan.
Mrs. Indira Gandhi was the political successor of Lal Bahadur Shastri.
15. What do you mean by SDV?
Ans. Sanyukt Vidhayak Dal
16. Who were the two leaders for the following two slogans?
(a) Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan.
(b) Garibi Hatao.
Ans. (a) Lal Bahadur Shastri
(b) Indira Gandhi.
17. ‘Aya Ram, Gaya Ram’ how this term originates?
Ans. When Gaya Ram changed his party from Congress to communist and when he also returned to Congress and after remaining some months in Congress again by going to another party, Birendra Singh Rao declared this term.
18. When Pt. Nehru dies and who became the Prime Minister of India after Pt. Nehru?
Ans. In 1964 Pt. Nehru dies and Lal Bahadur Shastri become Prime Minister of India.
19. Give the Status of SVO in the new Era of Coalition?
Ans. Same as Ans. of Q. No. 6
20. What speculation arose after the death of Pt. Nehru in the Indian Politics?
Ans. Same as Ans. of Q. No. 9
21. (a) In the ____ election ____ and her party was defeated.
Ans. Lok Sabha, 1967
(b) In the fourth general election of ____ Jan Sangh secured ____ seats in the Lok Sabha.
LONG ANSWER (4 Marks)
1. Explain the emergence of coalition govt.
Ans. When no single party achieves absolute majority in the election the coalition government is formed by making alliance of two or more than two political parties. The election of 1967 brought into picture of the phenomenon of coalition government in Indian politics.
The reason for the emergence of coalition governments are as follows –
- After the results of 1967 elections were declared no single party could get majority.
- Therefore, various non-congress parties came together to form joint legislature parties called S.V.D. (Sanyukt Vidhayak Dal) that supported non-congress government.
- There was an attempt by the various non-congress parties to form coalition government.
- The coalition partners were ideologically incongruent and their deals were not all same. Buy yet the system of coalition came into Indian politics for the first time.
2. Why did the Indira Govt. decide to devalue the Indian Rupee in 1967? What was its result?
Ans. Indira Gandhi decided to devalue the Indian Rupees in 1967 due to following reasons –
- There was grave economic crisis during that period resulting from successive failure of monsoons, widespread drought.
- There was decline in agricultural production which led to service food shortage.
- Depletion of foreign exchange reserves and rapid drop in industrial production and exports.
- There was a sharp rise in military expenditure and diversion of resources from planning and economic development.
As a result of devaluation, value of Indian rupees decreased. Earlier one US dollar could be purchased for less than Rs. 5, after devaluation it cost more than Rs. 7.
3. State reasons for the defect of the congress in 1967. Give reasons for your answer.
Ans. The reasons for the defect of the congress in 1967 were as follows –
- Increased mobilization of regional ethnic and communal groups in the politics of India led to the defect of the congress party.
- Anti-Congressism developed in the later part of 1960’s, increased unity among non-congress parties led to the defeat of the congress party.
- Internal differences within the congress party were also another reason for the defeat of the congress party.
- Ignorance of the public protests by the government and considering the protest as law and order problem rather than expressions of people’s problems.
VERY LONG ANSWER (6 Marks)
1. Explain any six factors which were responsible for the split of the congress in 1969.
Ans. The formal split in the congress took place in 1969 on the issue of Presidential election; actually the factional rivalry between the Syndicate and Indira Gandhi came in the open in 1969 regarding the nomination of candidate for the President’s post. Following are the six responsible factors for the split of the congress in 1969.
- In 1967 election, the congress party got power but with a reduced majority. Factionalism within the congress developed and congress lost power in many states.
- A syndicate was formed within the congress party and began to influence the decision of Indira Gandhi.
- Despite Mrs. Gandhi’s reservations the syndicate managed to nominate her long time opponent and then speaker of the Lok Sabha N. Sanjeeva Reddy, as the official congress for the ensuring presidential elections.
- Indira Gandhi retaliated by encouraging the then vice president V.V. Giri to file his nomination as an independent candidate.
- During election, the then congress president S. Nijalingappa issued a ‘whip’ asking all the congress MPs and MLA’s to vote in favour of Sanjeeva Reddy.
- On the other hand, after silently supporting V.V. Giri, the Prime Minister openly called for a conscience note to vote the way they want.
And, the election ultimately resulted in the victory of V.V. Giri and of defeat of Sanjeeva Reddy. The defeat of the official congress candidate therefore formalized the split.
2. State which of these were reasons for the defeat of the Congress in 1967. 
Give reasons for your answer –
- The absence of a charismatic leader in the congress party.
- Split within the congress party.
- Increased mobilization of regional, ethnic and communal groups.
- Increasing unity among non-congress parties.
- Internal differences within the congress party.
Ans. The reasons for the defeat of the Congress Party were the increasing unity among non-congress parties and the internal differences within the congress party. But that time the parties opposed to the congress had realised that it was the division of their votes which was keeping the congress party in power. Thus, parties that were opposed in their programme and ideologies to the congress got together to form anti-congress fronts in some states and entered into electoral adjustment of sharing seats in others. They also felt that the inexperience of the new Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and the internal factionalism within the congress party provided them an opportunity to topple the congress. The socialist leader Ram Manohar Lohia, gave this strategy the name of non-congressism. He also said that the congress rule was undemocratic and opposed to the interests of ordinary poor people. Thus, the coming together of non-congress parties was necessary for saving democracy in the country. As a result of the above situation the congress was able to get a reduced majority (283 seats) in the Lok Sabha. But in state elections, congress lost majority in seven states. Besides in other two states, defections prevented it from forming the government. These nine states where the congress lost power were – Punjab, Haryana, UP, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Orissa, Madras (Tamil Nadu) and Kerala. In Madras, DMK, a regional political party got an absolute majority on its own formed the government. In other states, coalition governments consisting of different non-congress parties were formed.
3. How was the Congress (O) different from Congress (R)
Ans. Congress (o) and congress (r) are the two opposition political party within congress both are originated after the congress split in 1969. They are differ from each other like following manner.
- By November 1969, the congress group led by the Syndicate leader came to be referred to as the congress (O or organization). On the other hand the group led by Mrs. Indira Gandhi came to be called the congress (R or Requisitionists.).
- In the time of presidential election of 1969, the leaders of congress (O) supported Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy as Presidential Candidate. While Indira Gandhi and congress (R) supported V.V. Giri as presidential candidate.
- Congress (O) was conservative in nature. But congress (R) was a socialist type of political party.
- Congress (O) was more concerned of the rich section of society. While congress (R) was greatly concerned of poor section of people in the society.
- In the 1971 Lok Sabha election Indira Gandhi’s congress (r) won 352 seats with about 44% of the popular votes on its own. Contrast this with the performance of the congress (O) the party with so many stalwarts could get less than one fourth of the votes secured by Indian Gandhi’s party and win merely 16 seats.
4. How did the Fourth General Elections (1967) in India change the dynamics of Indian politics? 
Ans. The features of 4th general elections were –
- Context of the elections: The 4th general elections were fought in a very fragile political and economic environment. There was severe price rise of essential commodities, food scarcity, growing unemployment and the overall economic condition in the country. Bands and hartals were called frequently across the country. The government saw the protests as a law and order problem and not as expressions of people’s problems. This further increased public bitterness and reinforced popular unrest.
- Non-Congressism: The opposition parties of Congress came together to form anti-Congress fronts in the fourth general elections. This coming together of anti-Congress opposition parties is called the strategy of non-Congressism. Parties opposed to the Congress realised that the division of their votes kept the Congress in power. Thus, parties, that were entirely different and disparate in their programmes and ideology got together to form of anti-Congress fronts in some states and entered into electoral adjustment of sharing seats in others.
- Electoral Verdict: The electoral verdict of 1967 jolted the Congress Party. The Congress in 4th general elections was facing the electorate for the first time without Nehru. The congress did manage to get a majority in the Lok Sabha, but with its lowest tally of seats and share of votes since 1952. Half the ministers in Indira Gandhi’s cabinet were defeated. The Political stalwarts who lost in their constituencies included Kamraj in Tamil Nadu, S.K. Patil in Maharashtra, Atulya Ghosh in West Bengal and K.B. Sahay in Bihar.
- Coalition form of Government: The elections of 1967 brought into picture the phenomenon of coalitions. Since no single party had got majority, various non-Congress parties came together to form joint legislative parties. That is why these governments came to be described as Samyukt Vidhayak Dal governments. In most of these cases the coalition partners were ideologically incongruent. The SVD government in Bihar, for instance, included the two socialist parties SSP and PSP along with the CPI on the left and Jana Sangh on the right. In Punjab it was called the ‘Popular United Front’ and comprised the two rival Akali parties at that time – Sant Group and Master group – with both the communist parties – CPI and the CPI(M), the SSP, the Republican Party and the Bharatiya Jana Sangh.
- Defection: Another feature of the politics after the 1967 election was the role played by defections in the making and unmaking of government in the states. Defection means an elected representative leaves the party on whose symbol he/she was elected and joins another party. After the 1967 general election, the breakaway Congress legislators played an important role in installing non-Congress governments in three states namely Haryana, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. The constant realignments and shifting political loyalties in this period gave rise to the expression ‘Aya Ram, Gaya Ram’.