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UNIT – 13
INDIA EXTERNAL RELATIONS
Table of Contents
VERY SHORT ANSWER (1 Mark)
1. Who was the founder of Indian National Army?
Ans. Subhas Chandra Bose was the founder of Indian National Army.
2. Which article of the constitution of India lays down about the foreign policy?
Ans. The constitution of India lays down about the foreign policy through the Article 51.
3. Who is the pioneer of India’s Foreign Policy?
Ans. The pioneer of India’s Foreign Policy is Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru.
4. Name the two super power countries which led two blocks at global level.
Ans. U.S.S.R and U.S.A are the two super power countries which led two blocks at global level.
5. In which year did China annex Tibet?
Ans. In 1950 China annexed Tibet.
6. What does NEFA imply?
Ans. N.E.F.A implies North East Frontier Agency.
7. When did China invade Indian?
Ans. In 1962 China invaded India.
8. Who was the first Prime Minister after Nehru to visit China?
Ans. The First Prime Minister after Nehru to visit China was Rajiv Gandhi.
9. Name the agreement which was signed by Lal Bahadur Shastri and General Ayub Khan in 1966.
Ans. In 1966 Tashpent Agreement was signed by Lal Bahadur Shastri and General Ayub Khan.
10. In which year was Bangladesh war started?
Ans. In 1971 Bangladesh war was started.
11. When was the Shimla Agreement held?
Ans. In 1975 Shimla Agreement was held.
12. In which year Mc. Mohan Line was determined as boundary in between India and China?
Ans. In the year 1914 Mc Mohan Line was determined as boundary line between India and China.
13. Who proposed partition of Kashmir?
Ans. Md. Ali Jinnah and Muslim League proposed for the partition of Kashmir.
14. Where the first non-alignment summit was held?
Ans. In September 1961, in Belgrade the first non-alignment summit was held.
15. What do you mean by foreign policy?
Ans. Foreign Policy means the policy which an independent country adopts towards other independent countries.
16. Write one basic principle of India’s Foreign Policy.
Ans. One basic principle of India’s Foreign Policy is non alignment.
17. Say the correct word.
(a) The first summit of non-alignment (NAM) was held in Belgrade in (1960/1961/1962)
Ans. The first summit of non-alignment (NAM) was held in Belgrade in 1961.
(b) The Panchsheel Agreement was signed between India and (Pakistan/China/USA)
Ans. The Panchsheel agreement was signed between India and China.
(c) The Kargil conflict went on during May and June (1998/1999/2000)
Ans. The Kargil conflict went on during May and June 1999.
(d) The Janata Party Government came to power in (1976/1977/1978)
Ans. The Janata Party Government came to power in 1977.
(e) Who signed Shimla Agreement?
- Indira Gandhi and Mr. Bhutto
- Dalai lama and Indira Gandhi
- Jawaharlal Nehru and Mr. Bhutto.
Ans. Indira Gandhi and Mr. Bhutto
18. What are the ingredients of foreign policy?
Ans. National Security and National Interest
19. In which year China invaded India?
Ans. China invaded India in 1962.
20. Which is a major issue of dispute between India and Pakistan?
Ans. Kashmir issue is the major issue of conflict between India and Pakistan.
21. In which year Shimla agreement took place?
Ans. Shimla agreement took place in 1972.
22. Who signed Shimla agreement?
Ans. Shimla agreement was signed by India and Pakistan.
23. What was the significance of Bandung Conference?
Ans. The significance of Bandung Conference was that it resolved to promote goodwill and Co-operation within the nations of Asia, and Africa.
VERY SHORT ANSWER (2 Mark)
1. Explain the two most important basic principle of India’s Foreign Policy.
Ans. Non-alignment, Friendly relation with all the country
2. What do you mean by Panchsheel? 
Ans. Panchsheel means five principles of conducting relations among nations. India and China formulated ‘Panchsheel’ to main friendly relations.
3. Mention two points of tension in India’s relations with Pakistan. 
Ans. (i) Kashmir is the core issue of tension existing between India and Pakistan.
(ii) Terrorism is another cause of tension in India’s relation with Pakistan.
4. Mention any two major objectives of Nehru’s Foreign Policy.
Ans. (i) To preserve hard earned sovereignty.
(ii) To protect territorial integrity.
(iii) To promote economic development.
5. Give the full form of N.P.T and C.T.B.T.
Ans. Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty
Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty
6. Illustrate two major points of dispute with China.
Ans. Two major points of dispute with China are –
- In September 1962, China crossed NEFA and launched a large scale attack against India.
- India made a strong note of protest to China by establishing military control in Tibet to which Chinese authorities reacted sharply.
7. When was the first nuclear explosion undertaken by India?
Ans. In 1974, the first nuclear explosion was undertaken by India.
8. What are the factors which influence a country’s foreign policy?
Ans. The factor which influence a country’s foreign policy are –
- Economic factor,
- Security dependence,
- Historical factors etc.
9. Mention two conditions of Shimla Agreement.
Ans. The conditions of Shimla agreement signed between Indira Gandhi and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto on 3 July 1972 is given below:
- To maintain understanding, good neighbourhood relations stable and long lasting peace.
- To country would interfere with the other country’s internal matters on the basis of mutual respect for peace, security etc.
10. How far India’s Foreign Policy has been able to protect its National Interest?
Ans. To a large extent the Indian foreign policy protects in national interests like –
- Our support to Indo-Pakistan’s positive relation have witness many new development. While Kashmir continues to be the main issue between the two countries, there have been many efforts to restore normal relation. Culture exchanges, movement of citizens and economic co-operation would be encouraged by both countries.
- Our support to NIEO would ensure free flow of resources from the developed countries.
11. Write any 2 example of International issues where India took an independent stand.
Ans. The two examples of international issues where India took an independent stand are –
- India did not support the idea of block politics. Instead of that India announced her independent foreign policy on the basis of Non-Aligned Movement.
- In the bringing of gap between Global North and Global South countries India took an independent stand. India advocated the idea of New International Economic order.
12. What do you mean by peaceful co-existence?
Ans. Peaceful co-existence means competition without war or a policy of peace between nations of widely differing political system and ideologies. It is one of the principles of Sino-India Treaty of.
13. What was the significance of Bandung Conference?
Ans. The Afro-Asian conference held in the Indonesian city of Bandung in 1955, commonly known as the Bandung conference had following significance:
- The Bandung conference led to the establishment of Non-Alignment (NAM) as Jawaharlal Nehru as its co-founder.
- It marked the Zenith of India’s engagement with the nearly independent Asian and African Nations.
14. Which step was regarded as cornerstone in India-China relation?
Ans. The joint enunciation of Panchsheel, the five principle of peaceful co-existence, by the Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and the Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai an 29th April 1954, was regarded as the cornerstone of Indo-China relation. India and Chinese leaders visited each other’s country and were greeted by large and friendly crowds.
15. In which year and who declared five principles of Panchsheel?
Ans. On 29th April 1954 five principle of Panchsheel was declared by India’s Prime Minister Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru and China’s Premier Zhou Enlai to make strong the relationship between the two countries.
16. Mention any two major objective of Nehru’s Foreign Policy?
Ans. The two major objective of Nehru’s Foreign Policy are
- To protect hard earned sovereignty of India.
- To establish peace.
17. What do you mean by Panchsheel?
Ans. Panchsheel means five principles of conducting relations among nations. India and China formulated five principles of conducting mutual relations.
18. Write two principles on the basis of which India has established her relations with her neighbours?
Ans. The principles on the basis of which India had established her relations with her neighbours:
- Non-interference in the internal affairs of other independent states.
- Peaceful co-existence.
19. Mention two points of tension in India’s relations with Pakistan?
Ans. Kashmir is the main point of tension between relation of India and Pakistan. On the other hand terrorism is another important point of tension between the two countries.
20. Write two most important basic principles of India’s foreign Policy?
Ans. Two basic principles of India’s foreign policy are –
- Respect and belief in the United Nations Organization.
21. Write the importance of ‘Peaceful Co-existence’ is the context of India’s foreign policy?
Ans. Peaceful co-existence is one basic characteristic of India’s foreign policy. Peaceful Co-existence means live and let live. It gives importance on maintaining peace and avoiding war. It is one of the principle of Sino-Indian relations.
22. Mention two conditions of Shimla agreement?
Ans. (i) Pull lack of troops by India and Pakistan away from the international border
(ii) Renunciation of the use of force in the settlement of disputes.
23. State any directive Principles of State Policy relating to foreign affairs?
Ans. Settlement of international disputes by arbitration, maintain just and honourable relations with nations.
LONG ANSWER (4 Marks)
1. List out the major goals of India’s Foreign Policy.
Ans. The major goals of Indian Foreign Policy are –
- To protect the territorial integrity of the country and protect the interests of its citizens both within and outside the country.
- To maintain link with other members of international community and adoption of policy of conflict or co-operation towards them with a view to promoting its own interests.
- To promote the national interests of the country.
- It aims at enhancement of the influence of the state either by expanding its area of influence or by reducing other states to the position of dependency.
2. Write the Tashkent agreement between India and Pakistan.
Ans. Tashkent agreement was signed on January 10, 1966 between Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri and the president of Pakistan Ayub Khan. The main principles of this agreement was as follows –
- To improve the mutual relation between both the countries India and Pakistan, to restore peaceful relations between the two countries.
- To create good neighbour relations between them.
- To reaffirm their obligations under the UN charter not to have resource to force and to settle their disputes through peaceful means.
- The Indian Prime Minister and the Pak-President further agreed that all armed personnel of the two countries should be withdrawn not later than the February 25, 1966 to the positions they held prior to August 5, 1965 and both sides should observe the cease-fire terms and the cease fire line.
3. Write the main principles of Panchsheel.
Ans. The Panchasheela was formulated by Jawaharlal Nehru. It is the main basis of India’s foreign policy. This principle is taken from the philosophy of Buddhism. The Panchasheela comprises five principles –
- Peaceful co-existence.
- Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity.
- Non-interference in each other’s territorial affairs.
- Equality and mutual benefit.
4. Analyze Directive Principles of State Policy on “Promotion of International peace and security”?
Ans. The Directive Principles of State Policy incorporated in the constitution of India mentions about promotion of international peace and Security. Article 51 of the constitution of India lays down provisions for the promotion of international peace and security. They are –
- The state shall Endeavour to promote peace and security.
- The state shall Endeavour to maintain just and honourable relations between nations.
- The state shall Endeavour to foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organized people with one another.
- The state shall Endeavour to encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration.
VERY LONG ANSWER (6 Marks)
1. Describe the internal and external determinants of India’s Foreign Policy.
Ans. The external and internal determinants of Indian Foreign Policy are as follows –
(i) Internal Factors:
- National Interest: Every country has certain basic interests at the root of its foreign policy. India has also similarly certain basic interests, the foremost being national interest. Jawaharlal Nehru, as the first Prime Minister and Foreign Minister told the constituent Assembly an December 1947 thus “we may talk about peace and freedom and earnestly mean what we say. But in the ultimate analysis, a government functions for the good of the country it governs.” In his view, a nation’s self interest may itself demand a policy of co-operation with other nations.
- Constitutional obligations: Directive principles of state policy are the guiding principles for the mutation of policies and legislation.
- Economic Development: One of the important determinants of Indian Foreign Policy is economic development. For the development of the country Economic Development is necessary.
(ii) External Factors:
- Power Polities of Super power: After the 2nd world war, the world was divided into two blocs one headed by USA and other headed by USSR. But Indian leader decided to be free from the two blocs.
- Emergence of the Third Word: There was a sea change in the international political relation with the emergence of the newly independent state of Asia, Africa and Latin America which were economically and politically weak. India tries to bring all these countries under one umbrella called non-alignment.
- Co-operation with UNO: India use the UN platform to spread the message of world peace. India was convinced that the UN and its agencies should be strengthened in their efforts towards international peace and development of all nations.
2. ‘India’s relationship with her neighbours has been strained from the beginning” – explain.
Ans. it is absolutely true that India’s relationship with her neighbours has been strained since the attainment of independence. India has several times experienced deadly wars against her neighbours. This can be explained like –
- India’s relationship with Pakistan: India’s tense relationship with Pakistan was started just after partition over the dispute on Kashmir. A more serious armed conflict between the two countries began in 1965 with the initiative of Pakistan. Pakistan is the recent years have sponsored cross border terrorism and disturbed the internal peace of India. The Parliament attack in December 2011 and Mumbai attacks in 2008 are classic examples of Pakistan sponsored terrorism. India’s dispute against Pakistan is also due to Indus River. Although an agreement was signed by the two nations, still the problems persist between the two.
- India’s relationship with China: India’s strained relationship with China started when China annexed Tibet in 1950 and thus removed a historical suffers between two counties. Initially the government of India did not oppose this openly. Another issue of conflict was the border dispute between India and China. China claimed two areas within the Indian Territory. Despite a long correspondence and discussion among top leaders these differences could not be resolved. China does not support India to secure a permanent seat in United Nations. When she requires the support of the neighbouring countries to get a permanent seat.
3. What are the objectives of Nation Foreign Policy?
Ans. The objectives of a nation’s foreign policy are –
- Maintaining the integrity of the state,
- Promoting economic interest,
- Providing for national security,
- Protecting national prestige and developing national power,
- Maintaining world order.
4. What are the Ingredients of Foreign Policy?
Ans. (a) Geographical Factors: Geography is a permanent and stable factor underlying a state’s foreign policy. In geographical situation the characteristics of size, topography, shape and climate are important.
(b) Leadership: It is the government and the leaders who convert the potential power of a state into an actual power. The most fateful decisions have to be taken by the leaders regarding allocation of resources and selection of particular goods.
(c) Natural Resources: The natural resources are another vital element in foreign policy. The natural resources include food, minerals, oil, water resources etc.
(d) Military Power: Further, the strength of a nation in military terms may also influence its foreign policy. Only those states have adopted aggressive postures who feel themselves militarily strong.
(e) Ideology: The ideology of a state also greatly influences the foreign policy of a state. It determines the goals to be achieved by the state in international relations.
(f) National Interest: The national interests of a country also exercise profound influence on its foreign policy. Each state has certain aspirations which it seeks to achieve through the instrument of foreign policy.
5. What was the rule of Jawaharlal Nehru in setting the National agenda?
Ans. Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India played a crucial role in setting the national agenda. Pt. Nehru was the ‘chief architect’ of India’s foreign policy. The three major objectives of Pt. Nehru’s foreign policy were –
- To preserve the hand-earned sovereignty,
- To protect territorial integrity, and
- To promote rapid economic development.
On attainment of freedom India decided not to join any power bloc, as she needed to take benefit of the economic and technical assistance from both the power blocs.
Pt. Nehru, “Non-alignment is not a policy of playing safe and the middle way.” It is a positive and constructive policy which stands for security of some objectives.
6. Explain the concept of Afro Asian Unity.
Ans. India has created a sense of increasing participation of Asian and African states in international politics. Nehru’s era was marked by the establishment of contacts between India and other newly independent states in Asian and Africa.
- Through the 1940s and 1950s Nehru had been an ardent advocate of Asian Unity. And under his leadership, India convened the Asian Relations Conference in March 1947, five months ahead of attaining her independence.
- India made an effort for the realization of freedom of Indonesia from the Dutch colonial regime by convening an international conference in 1949 to support her freedom struggle.
- India was an ardent supporter of the decolonization process and firmly opposed racism, especially apartheid in South Africa.
- The Afro-Asian Conference held in the Indonesian city of Bandung in 1955, commonly known as the ‘Bandung Conference’ marked the zenith of India’s engagement with the newly independent Asian and African nations.
7. State the objectives of Bandung Conference (significance).
Ans. Aims and Objectives:
- To promote goodwill and co-operation within the nations of Asia and Africa and to explore and advance their mutual interests by establishing friendly and neighboarly relations,
- To consider social, economic and cultural problems in relation to the countries represented,
- To consider problems of special interest of Asian and African people, problems affecting national sovereignty and problems concerning racialism and colonialism.
- To view the position of Asian and Africa and their people in the World today.
8. Explain the relation of India and Pakistan.
Ans. Even since Pakistan’s birth in 1947 the relations between India and Pakistan have never been cordial. The partition of the country and the problems rising in its wake embittered the relations between the two states. Relations between India and Pakistan remained tense because of persistent clashes on the issues of displaced property, constitutional place of Indian states, determination of boundary line and disputes over Junagarh, Hyderabad and Kashmir. Two wars took place between both the countries on Kashmir issue first in 1948, and then in 1965.
In 1971, India and Pakistan fought another war on Bangladesh issue. Over the use of Indus waters also, a canal water dispute arose between the two countries. A long term dispute about the sharing of river waters was resolved through mediation by the World Bank. The India Pakistan Indus Waters Treaty was signed by Nehru and General Ayub Khan in 1960.
9. Explain the India’s Nuclear Policy.
Ans. When Communist China conducted nuclear tests in October, 1964, the five nuclear weapon powers, the US, USSR, UK, France and China (Taiwan then represented China) also the five permanent members of the UN Security Council tried to impose the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968 on the rest of the World. India considered the NPT as discriminatory and had refused to sign it.
India is the sixth country in the world enjoying atomic power by having undertaken a successful atomic experiment in 1974. There are four Atomic power Centres working in India. After India conducted nuclear tests in May, 1998 United States and other countries urged India to sign CTBT (Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty) unconditionally.