The enemy is one of the important chapters of class 12 vistas. Here you will get class 12 The Emmy class 12 summary in English and Hindi along with The Emeny’s NCERT Solution and additional questions answers.
About the Author
Pearl S. Buck was the daughter of American missionaries and spent a significant part of her life in China. She was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1938. She was a prolific writer and is noted for her novels of life in China. She was an active supporter of the rights of women and minority groups. The experience of being rejected and at risk of being killed because of her race, religion and nationality resonates in her work and is also seen in ‘The Enemy’.
The Enemy Class 12 Summary in Brief
‘The Enemy’ is a short story set in Japan, during World War II. It was published in 1942, a year after the attack on Pearl Harbor. A critically wounded blonde American washes up on the beach, near Dr SadaoHoki’s home. The doctor is caught in a conflict between his duty as a doctor and his duty as a Japanese citizen.
The Enemy Class 12 Summary Paragraph-wise
Influence of Dr Sadao’s Father on him
The story begins with a description of the house of Dr SadaoHoki. It is a square stone house overlooking a narrow beach, outlined with pine trees. As a child, he had climbed those trees. He had often visited the South Seas islands with his father. His father used to tell him that the islands were the stepping stones to the future for Japan.
He also pointed out to his son that one is responsible for one’s future, and no one else is an obstacle to one’s progress. Sadao kept this in his mind, as he did all that his father said. His father was serious and did not joke or play with him. Instead, he took a lot of pain to ensure that his son got a good education. At the age of 22, he was sent to America to study medicine and surgery.
He returned to Japan at the age of 30. Before his father died, he had the satisfaction of seeing his son as a surgeon and also as a scientist. Dr Sadao had not been sent abroad with the troops as he was working on a discovery that would render wounds entirely clean. Another reason was that he might be required to operate on the old General, who was undergoing treatment for a certain condition.
Sadao and Hana’s Relationship
Clouds were rising from the ocean. It had been unexpectedly warm for the last few days. From the veranda, Sadao noticed the spreading mist and realised it would soon envelop the house too.
Hana, his wife, dressed in traditional Japanese attire, joins him. Sadao recollects how he had met Hana in America but waited to fall in love with her only after he was sure that she was Japanese.
His father would not have accepted her otherwise. He had met her at an American professor’s house. The professor and his wife were kind people who wanted something for their foreign students.
Sadao had almost decided not to go since the place was small and the food bad, but finally went and there he met Hana, a new student. They finished their education in America and came to Japan. After his father had seen her, their marriage was arranged in the traditional Japanese way. Sadao and Hana were perfectly happy and had two children.
Man Washed Ashore
Suddenly they saw something black emerge from the mists. A man was flung, by a huge wave, up out of the ocean. He staggered a few steps, crawled on his hands and knees, and fall flat on his face.
Thinking it to be a fisherman, Sadao and Hana ran down the steps to the man. The surf beyond the beach was spiked with rocks, and they knew that the man must be badly hurt.
They approached the wounded man, and Hana realised that it was a white man. He was very young and was unconscious. From the gunshot wound on his back, red scars on his neck and his U. S Navy hat, they conclude that he must be a prisoner of war, who had escaped. Sadao and Hana wonder what they should do with the man. He applied sea moss to the wound, and the bleeding stopped.
They feel that it would be best to put him back in the sea. Sadao said that if they sheltered him, they would be arrested, and if they handed him over, he would certainly die. Sadao felt that if the man were fit, he would have handed him over to the police, but since he was wounded. Hana completed his statement and said that Sadaocannotthrow the man back in the sea. They must take him to their house and tell the servants that they intend to hand him over to the police. She said that it would be risky if they did not hand him over.
The Servants Protest
They lifted the man and carried him into the house through the side door. They took him to the room which had been Sado’s father’s bedroom and laid him on the matted floor. Sadao checks his pulse and heartbeat. Hana goes to fetch Yumito wash the man.
The other servants had already been briefed by Sadao. The gardener expressed his opinion that the master should not heal the wound of the white man. Yumi refused to wash the white man and did not want to be involved in the matter at all. Hana started cleaning the man herself.
Sadaoentered the room with his surgeon’s emergency bag. He took over from Hana and turned the man over and washed his back. He examined the wound and noticed the bullet was still there. The wound was deep, and the man had lost a lot of blood. Hana was distressed at the sight and ran out of the room to throw up. She got back to the room and started helping Sadao.
While operating, he called him friend, as it was his habit to call his patients, “my friend “. With the most precise incision, Sadao expertly extracted the bullet from the man’s body. The man was still unconscious, but he uttered a few words. Sadao gave him an injection after which his pulse became stronger. He assured Hana that the man would live.
When the young man woke up, he was terrified to realise where he was. Hana told him not to be afraid and fed him with a spoon. On the third day after the surgery, Sadao found the man sitting and scolded him for doing so.
He warned him that such efforts might kill him. The man wanted to know if he was going to be handed over to the authorities. Sadao said that he did not know what he would do with the man. Hana informed Sadao that the servants would leave if they continued to shield the white man. They were under the impression that their employers liked Americans and had forgotten to think about their country first.
Sadao pointed out that though the Americans were their enemies, his training as a doctor did not allow him to let a man die. The servants continued to be openly critical of their master’s action. The man revealed to Hana that his name was Tom. Sadao examined Tom’s wound every day, and in a fortnight, he would be well. He typed a letter to the Chief of police detailing the whole matter right from the time they had found the washed-up prisoner and left the unfinished report in a secret drawer of his desk.
The Servants Quit Work
On the morning of the seventh day, the servants left the house with their belongings. Hana very gracefully thanked them for their service and paid them. They were crying as they left. The cook and the gardener had been in their service since the time Sadao was a small boy and Yumiwas much attached to the children. Hana asked Sadao the reason for their being different from other Japanese. Even the servants could see what they could not.
Time to Leave
Sadao informs Tom that he could stand on his feet for five minutes, and it should be gradually increased. It would be good if he got back his strength soon. The man thanked him for having saved his life. Sadao is summoned to the palace to treat the old General.
He confided about the prisoner to the General. The General offered to send assassins to his house to kill the white man. He asked him to leave the outer partition of the man’s room open. Sadao agreed to the plan. After going home, he didn’t inform Hana about the General’s suggestion. Tom once again thanked Sadao for having saved his life. The next morning he peeped into Tom’s room and saw him sleeping.
He was there the second morning and also the third morning. His health had improved. Sadaotold him that he would give his boat to the man, that night, to escape to an island nearby. He could live on the island until he saw a Korean fishing boat pass by. The young man nodded in agreement. That nightSadao dragged the boat to the shore, put quilts, food and water in it and tied the boat to a post.
Before going to bed, he checked the American’s temperature, heart, pulse, and wound. He gave him his flashlight and told him to signal if his food got over before he got a boat. He also gave him Japanese clothes to wear. The young man shook Sadao’s hand warmly and left for the shore.
The servants returned to the house. Sadao was called one night to carry out an emergency operation upon the General. A week after the successful operation, Sadao informed the General that the man had escaped.
The General recollected that he was to have sent assassins to kill the man, but on account of his bad health, he had forgotten to do so. Sadao searched the spot of black in the twilight and could see no flash of light.
His prisoner had gone, and he was safe. As he stood on the veranda gazing out at the sea, he thought of the other white people that he had known: the professor and his wife, his teacher, his landlady. He remembered how difficult it was to find accommodation in America since he was Japanese. Then he remembered his prisoner and found it strange that he could not kill him.
The Enemy Class 12 summary in Hindi
डाक्टर सडाओ एक प्रसिद्ध जापानी सर्जन तथा वैज्ञानिक था |उसका घर जापान के समुद्र तट पर स्थित एक स्थान पर था| जहां वह अपने लड़कपन (childhood) में अक्सर खेला करता था | यह चट्टानों पर स्थित था | वह एक तंग तट से काफी ऊपर स्थित था | जिसके किनारे झुके हुए, देवदार के पेड़ थे | जापानी समुद्र तट के नजदीक कुछ छोटे छोटे द्वीप थे| सडाओ का पिता अक्सर उसे उन द्वीपों पर ले जाया करता था | वहां वहीं द्वीपों की तरफ इशारा करता और कहता उस पार वे द्वीप जापान की भविष्य की ओर जाने वाली सीढ़ियां है | यह हम पर निर्भर करता है कि हम अपना भविष्य कैसा बनाएं ।
सडाओ की शिक्षा उसके पिता की मुख्य चिंता थी| वह कभी भी उससे मजाक नहीं करता था ना ही उसके साथ खेलता था | वह सिर्फ उसकी शिक्षा की चिंता किया करता था | जब सडाओ 22 वर्ष का हुआ तो उसे अमेरिका भेज दिया गया ताकि वह सर्जरी और चिकित्सा के बारे में उतना सब जान सके जितना उससे संभव हो | अमेरिका में सडाओ एक अमेरिकन प्रोफेसर के घर में रहता था ।कुछ अन्य विदेशी विद्यार्थी पर वहां रहते थे यहां कमरे बहुत छोटे थे और भोजन भी बेकार सा था इसके अलावा प्रोफेसर की पत्नी बहुत बातूनी थी परंतु सडाओ वही रहता था क्योंकि यहां वह एक जापानी लड़की हना से मिला जिससे वह प्रेम करना चाहता था यदि वह जरा भी संभव हो दोनों एक दूसरे से प्रेम करने लगे किंतु उन्होंने जल्दबाजी में अमेरिका में विवाह न किया सडाओ के पिता ने उसे कभी स्वीकार नहीं करना था जबकि वह अपनी जाति से शुद्ध ना हो। अपनी पढ़ाई पूरी करने के बाद वह वापस जापान आ गए ।जब सडाओ के पिता ने हना को देखा वह तुरंत उनके विवाह के लिए सहमत हो गया विवाह पुरानी जापानी शैली में संपन्न किया गया।
सभाओं और हना संपूर्ण प्रसंता का जीवन जीने लगे जब उनके दो बच्चे भी हो गए किंतु उनका एक दूसरे के प्रति प्यार हमेशा की तरह जवान बना रहा सडाओ कई बार सोचा करता था कि वह किससे विवाह करता यदि वह हना से संयोगवश अमेरिका में ना मिला होता।
एक रात को जब सडाओ घर आया तो उसकी पत्नी ने दरवाजा खोला उसने अपनी बांह उसकी बांहों में डाल दी और स्नेह पूर्वक मुस्कुराए उसने अपना गाल उसकी बांह लगा दिया ।या इसी पल था कि दोनों ने कोहरे के अंदर से कोई काली चीज़ निकलते हुए देखी ।वह एक आदमी था ।उसे समुद्र की लहरों ने बाहर ला फेका था। वह लड़खड़ाता हुआ कुछ कदम बढ़ा और फिर हाथो और घुटनों के बल गिर पड़ा। फिर से वह कुछ दूर रिंगा और मुंह के बल गिर पड़ा और वहीं पड़ा रहा।
सडाओ और हना दोनो तेजी से दौड़ते हुए उस जगह पहुंचे जहां वह आदमी पड़ा हुआ था वह वहां बिना हिले दुले पड़ा था और उसका चेहरा रेत के अंदर था आदमी घायल है सडाओ ने भावना बस कहां आदमी की एक तरफ की रेत में अब तक एक धब्बा बन चुका था जिसमें खून बहता हुआ जाता रहा था उसके सिर पर एक पुरानी तो पी थी और उसके गीले कपड़े चिथड़े बन चुके थे सडाओं ने आदमी का सिर घूम आया उन्होंने उसका चेहरा देखा।
अरे एक गोरा आदमी हना फुसफुसाई हां वह एक गोरा आदमी था गीले पीले टोपी सिर में अलग हो गई और उसके गीले पीले रंग के बाल दिखाई देने लगे उसके जवान और यातना प्राप्त चेहरे पर एक भद्दी सी पीले दाढ़ी थी वह बेहोश था उसके बारे में कुछ नहीं जाना पा रहा था जो वह उसके लिए कर रहे थे।
अब सडाओ को घाव की याद आई। अपने कुशल उगलियां से वह को टटोलने लगा ।उसके छूने मात्र से फिर से ताजा खून बहने लगा उसकी पीठ के निचले हिस्से में दाहिनी और बंदूक की गोली का एक घाव था जो फिर से खुल गया था किसी समय कोई ज्यादा दिन पहले नहीं आदमी को गोली लगी थी और फिर उसकी देखभाल नहीं की गई थी ।सडाओ ने घाव में वह समुद्री कोई भर दी जो समुद्र तट पर चारों तरफ बिखरी हुई थी । आदमी अपनी बेहोशी में ही दर्द से कराहा पर वह जागा नहीं।
सडाओ बुदबुदाया हम इस व्यक्ति का क्या करें उसने कहा कि सर्वोत्तम बात है जो वे कर सकते थे वह थी कि इस वाक्य को पुनः समुंद्र में वापस फेकं दें हाना इससे सहमत हो गई सडाओ ने स्पष्ट किया किया कि यह एक कठिन परिस्थिति थी ।यदि वे किसी गोरे व्यक्ति को अपने घर में शरण देते तो वे पकड़े जाते ।यदि वे उसे एक कैदी के रूप में सौंपते तो वह अवश्य मर जाता है एक विचित्र विकषृण से इस निश्र्चेष्ट शरीर को घूर घूर कर देख रहे थे।
फिर उन्होंने यह ज्ञात करने की चेष्टा की कि वह व्यक्ति क्या काम करता था। वह अमेरिकन दिखाई पड़ता था। टूटी फूटी पुरानी टोपी पर हल्के अक्षर थे u.s. नेवी। वे इस निष्कर्ष पर पहुंचे कि वह एक अमेरिकी युद्धपोत का नाविक था। यह व्यक्ति एक युद्धबंदी था। वह बच निकला था तथा पीठ में घायल हो गया था।
हाना ने सडाओ से पूछा कि क्या वे उसे वापस समुद्र में रख पाने के योग्य थे।सडाओ हिचकिचाया। यदि वह व्यक्ति पूर्ण होता, तो उसे बिना किसी कठिनाई के पुलिस को सौंप दिया जाता क्योंकि वह उसका शत्रु था। सभी अमेरिकन उसके शत्रु थे। किंतु क्योंकि वह घायल था…. ।सडाओ ने वाक्य को अधूरा छोड़ दिया।
हना ने कहा कि अब करने को एक बात शेष थी। उन्हें उसी घर में ले जाना चाहिए। सडाओ अपने सेवकों की प्रतिक्रिया की विषय में विश्वस्त नहीं था। हाना ने सुझाव दिया कि वे सेवकों को बता देंगे कि उनका इरादा उसे पुलिस को सौंपने का था। उसने कहा कि उन्हें ऐसा करना चाहिए, वरना वह सब खतरे में पड़ जाएंगे।
उन दोनों ने एक साथ मिलकर उस व्यक्ति को उठाया। वह काफी हल्का था। वे उसी सीढ़ियों से ऊपर तक गलियारे के बगल वाले द्वार में ले गए।वे उसे एक खाली शयनकक्ष में ले गए। क्योंकि वह व्यक्ति काफी गंदा था,सडाओ ने सुझाव दिया कि उसे नहलाना चाहिए। यदि वह पानी ले आएगी तो वह उसे धो देगा। हाना उसका इस व्यक्तित्व को स्पर्श करना सहन नहीं कर सकती थी। उसने प्रस्ताव किया कि वह नौकरानी यूमि को बताएगी। सडाओ ने अन्य सेवकों को सूचित करने का उत्तरदायित्व लिया।
उस अचेत व्यक्ति कि चेहरे के पीलेपन ने उसे द्रवित कर दिया कि वह पहले झुके तो था उसकी नब्ज देखें यह बहुत हल्की थी ,किंतु अब जो चल रही थी। उसने उस व्यक्ति की ठंडी छाती पर हाथ रखा। हृदय भी अभी जीवित था। सडाओ ने कहा कि यदि उसकी शल्यक्रिया नहीं की गई तो वह मर जाएगा। वह व्यक्ति अत्यंत युवा था, शायद हुआ 25 वर्ष का भी नहीं होगा। पहले उस व्यक्ति को नहलाना था। किंतु, सेवकों ने ऐसा करने से इंकार कर दिया। वे नहीं चाहते थे कि उनका स्वामी शत्रु को ठीक करें।
हाना ने उस व्यक्ति को धोया जब तक कि उसके शरीर का ऊपरी भाग पूरा साफ नहीं हो गया। सडाओ मैं अपने औजार एक जीवाणु रही तौलिए पर रखे। वह सावधानी से उस व्यक्ति की पीठ होने लगा। उसने हाना से कहा कि यदि आवश्यकता पड़े तो वह उसे चेतनाशून्य करने की औषधि दे दे।हाना का गला रूंध गया। अपने हाथ कस कर मुंह पर रखे वह कैमरे से बाहर दौड़ गई। सडाओ ने उसे बाग में उबकाई लेते हुये सुना। उससे पहले कभी शल्यक्रिया नहीं देखी थी।
सडाओ मैं तेजी से काम किया। हाना भीतर आ गई। सडाओ ने उससे कहा कि वह रूई को भीगो ले तथा उस व्यक्ति के नथुनो के पास पकड़े रखे। जब वह बुरी तरह सांस लेने लगे तो उसे इसे थोड़ा दूर हिला देना था। फिर सडाओ व्यस्त हो गया। उसने अपने औजार की नोक को किसी कठोर वस्तु से टकराते हुए महसूस किया। यह उसके गुर्दे के अत्यंत समीप था। फिर स्वच्छतम एवं सर्वोत्तम सटीक चीरा लगाकर, गोली बाहर निकाली गई। व्यक्ति कापां, किंतु वह अभी चेतनाशुन्य था।सडाओ ने उसे एक सुई लगा दी तथा उस व्यक्ति की नब्ज अधिक मजबूत हो गई।
हाना ओ स्वयं ही उस नवयुवक की सेवा सुश्रुषा करनी पड़ी, क्योंकि कोई भी सेवक उस कमरे में प्रवेश हि नही करता था। वह व्यक्ति दिन ब दिन अधिक स्वस्थ होता गया। सेवकों ने निश्चय कर लिया कि यदि उसका स्वामी उस शत्रु को वहां छिपाकर रखेगा तो वह उसे छोड़कर चले जाएंगे। सातवें दिन सेवक एक साथ चले गए। हाना उस कैदी के लिए सवेरे का भोजन ले गई। वापस आने पर उसने सडाओ से पूछा कि वह उस बात को साफ साफ क्यों नहीं देख पा रहे हैं जो उन्हें देखनी चाहिए।
अपराहन में सरकारी वर्दी पहने एक संदेशवाहक आया ।उसने डॉक्टर सडाओ को तुरंत महल में आने को कहा क्योंकि वृद्ध जनरल को पीड़ा हो रही थी।हाना ने चैन की सांस ली। जब सडाओ उसे अलविदा कहने आया, तो उसने अपना भय प्रकट किया कि उसने सोचा था कि वह उसे पकड़ने आए थे।सडाओ ने वादा किया कि उसकी खातिर वह उस व्यक्ति से पिडं छुड़ायेगा।
सडाओ ने जनरल को उस व्यक्ति के विषय में बताया जिसकी उसने शल्यक्रिया की थी। जनरल ने स्वीकार किया कि क्यों सडाओ उसके लिए अपरिहार्य था। जनरल ने वादा किया कि वह अपने निजी हत्यारे उस व्यक्ति को मारने तथा उसका शरीर वहां से हटाने को भेज देगा। उसने सडाओ से कहा कि जब वह बुरा व्यक्ति सो रहा हो तो उसके कक्ष का बाग की और बाहर वाला भाग खुला छोड़ दे।
इस योजना को सोचता हुआ सडाओ अपने घर गया। वह हाना को कुछ नहीं बताएग। उससे युवा अमेरिकन को बिस्तर से बाहर तथा बाद में जाने की तैयारी करते हुए देखकर आश्चर्य हुआ। उसने शिकायत की कि उसके एक तरफ के पहलू की मांसपेशियां सख्त थी। डा. सडाओ ने कहा कि व्यायाम तथा मालिश सहायक होंगे। फिर उसने उस अमेरिकन टॉम से कहा कि वह सो जाएं। अगले प्रातः काल सडाओ अतिथि कक्ष में गया तथा उसे सोते हुए पाया। दूसरी रात भी बीत गई। नवयुवक अभी वहां था। उसने दाढ़ी बना ली थी। उसके गालों में हल्की सी रंगत थी।
डा. सडाओ ने उसे बताया कि वह उस समय बिल्कुल ठीक था। उसने प्रस्ताव किया कि उस रात वह अपनी नौका तट पर रखेगा। इससे भोजन एवं अतिरिक्त वस्त्र भी होंगे। टाम उस छोटे द्वीप तक नाव खेने में समर्थ हो सकेगा जो तट से अधिक दूर नहीं था। इसको किला बनाकर सुदृढ़ नहीं किया गया था। वहां कोई भी नहीं रहता था क्योंकि तूफान में यह डूब जाता था। क्योंकि अब तूफान की ऋतु नहीं थी, वाह-वाह तब तक निवास कर सकता था, जब तक वह किसी कोरियाई मछली पकड़ने की नाव को गुजरते ना देखें।
ज्यों ही अंधेरा हुआ, सडाओ नवयुवक कि बच निकलने की तैयारी की। उसने उसे अपनी तीव्र प्रकाश की बैटरी दी। उसने उससे कहा कि यदि उसका भोजन समाप्त हो जाए तो वह सूर्यास्त के समय दो बार प्रकाश की चमक करें। यदि वह वही हो, तथा सकुशल हो तो उसे केवल एक बार संकेत करना था। उसे चेतावनी दी गई कि वह अंधेरे में संकेत ना करें क्योंकि यह देख लिया जाएगा। अब उस कह दी को जापानी वस्त्र पहनाए गए। उसके लाल बालो वाले सिर पर एक काला वस्त्र लपेट दिया गया। उसने ना हो तब मार्ग ढूंढ लिया। सडाओ ने तब तक प्रतीक्षा कि जब तक उसने तट से एक संकेत रूपी चमक देख ली।
रात को डा. सडाओ को जनरल की एक आपातकालीन शल्य क्रिया करने के लिए बुलाया गया। इसमें उसकी पित्त की थैली शामिल थी। 12 घंटे तक सडाओ कोई यकीन नहीं था कि जनरल जीवित रह पाएगा। फिर वह घड़ी सांस लेने लगा तथा भोजन मांगने लगा। सडाओ हत्यारों के विषय में नहीं पूछ पाया। जहां तक वह जानता था, वे कभी आई ही नहीं। सेवक लौट आये थे। कक्ष साफ कर दिया गया था।
शल्यक्रिया एक सप्ताह उपरांत सडाओ ने महसूस किया कि अब जनरल पर्याप्त ठीक था कि उससे कैदी के विषय में बात की जा सके।सडाओ ने उसे सुचित किया कि कैदी बच निकला था। जनरल ने डॉक्टर से पूछा कि क्या उसने उस व्यक्ति को डॉक्टर के लिए मारने का वादा नहीं किया था। फिर उसने सत्य स्वीकार किया। वह काफी कष्ट भोग रहा था। अब तो उसने अपने अतिरिक्त किसी अन्य बात के विषय में नहीं सोचा। वह अपना प्रण भूल गया था। उस रात सडाओ ने गोधूली के समय द्वीप से प्रकाश की प्रतीक्षा की। कोई भी प्रकाश नहीं था। उसका कैदी दूर चला गया था तथा सुरक्षित था।सडाओ आश्चर्य करता रहा कि वह उस नवयुवक को क्यों नहीं मार पाया यद्यपि गोरे व्यक्ति विकषक होते थे।
I hope you like The Emeny class 12 summary in hindi
Very Short Answer Questions (1 Mark each)
1. Where was Dr Sadao Hoki’s house built?
Ans. Dr Sadao Hoki’s house was built on a spot of the Japanese coast. It was set upon the rocks above a narrow beach outlined with pine trees.
2. Where did Sadao’s father often take him when he was a little boy?
Ans. When he was a little boy, Sadao’s father often took him to the South Seas islands.
3. What did Sadao’s father tell him during their visits to the islands?
Ans. During their visits to the South Seas islands, Sadao’s father told him that these islands were the stepping stones to the future for Japan.
4. What was his father’s chief concern?
Ans. Sadao’s education was the chief concern of his father.
5. What was the name of Dr Sadao’s wife?
Ans. The name of Dr Sadao’s wife was Hana.
6. How many children did Sadao and Hana have?
Ans. Sadao and Hana had two children.
7. Where did Sadao meet Hana for the first time?
Ans. Sadao met Hana for the first time in America at the house of Professor Harley.
8. What did Dr Sadao and Hana see coming out of the mists?
Ans. Dr Sadao and Hana saw something black coming out of the mists. It was a man who was flung up, out of the ocean.
9. What was the best thing that Dr Sadao and Hana could do about the man?
Ans. The best thing that Dr Sadao and Hana could do about the man was to put him back into the sea.
10. Who was the white man found by Dr Sadao and Hana?
Ans. The white man found by Dr Sadao and Hana was a sailor from an American warship. He was a prisoner of war.
11. Who was Yumi?
Ans. Yumi was employed by Dr Sadao and Hana to look after their children.
12. What did Hana observe about the white man, just under the ear?
Ans. Hana observed that the white man had deep red scars on his neck, just under the ear.
13. “Ignorance of the human body is the surgeon’s cardinal sin, sirs!” Who said this?
Ans. This statement was made by Dr Sadao Hoki’s Professor of Anatomy, to the students in his class.
14. What was the name of the white man?
Ans. The white man’s name was Tom.
Short Answer Questions (2 Marks each)
1. Sadao’s father used to refer to the islands near the Japanese coast as ‘the stepping stones to the future for Japan’. Explain the statement.
Ans. Sadao’s father used to refer to the islands near the Japanese coast as stepping stones to the future for Japan. For Japan to develop further, the people had to step out, explore the world outside, learn from it and bring back home well-honed talent.
2. How did Sadao’s father show his concern for him?
Ans. Sadao’s father was very concerned about his son’s education. He showed his concern for Sadao by sending him to America at the age of twenty-two to learn all that could be learned about surgery and medicine. Sadao spent eight years there in pursuit of this knowledge.
3. Why was Dr Sadao not sent abroad with the troops?
Ans. Dr Sadao was not just a surgeon but also a scientist. He was involved in perfecting a discovery which would render wounds entirely clean. Apart from this, there was one more reason for which he was kept behind. He might be required to operate upon the old General, who was being treated for a certain medical condition.
4. How did Dr Sadao meet Hana? How did their marriage take place?
Ans. Sadao met Hana at the house professor Harley, an American professor. He waited to fall in love with her till he was sure that she was Japanese. When his father had seen her, the marriage was arranged in the traditional Japanese way, though Sadao and Hana had talked everything over beforehand.
5. What shows that Dr Sadao’s father, despite his concern for his son’s education, was of a conservative nature?
Ans. Two things show that Dr Sadao’s father, despite his concern for his son’s education was of a conservative nature. He would not have accepted anyone other than a Japanese girl as Sadao’s wife. This is why Sadao waited to fall in love with Hana until he was sure that she was Japanese. Everything in Sadao’s father’s bedroom was Japanese; in his own home, he would never sit on a chair or sleep in a foreign bed.
6. What was the best thing that Dr Sadao and Hana could do about the man? Why?
Ans. The best thing that Dr Sadao and Hana could do about the man was to put him back into the sea. World War II was going on at the time. The person was an American and an escaped prisoner of war. If they handed him over to the police, he would certainly die. If they did not hand him over, they would be arrested.
7. What was the cause of the white man’s wound?
Ans. The white man, washed up on the beach near Sadao’s home was badly wounded. When Sadao and Hana discovered him, he was bleeding badly. On examining the wound, Sado found that he had been shot in the right side of his lower back. The wound was not tended, and it had been struck again by a rock.
8. How did Dr Sadao tend to the wound of the white man?
Ans. Dr Sadao and Hana discover a white man washed up on their beach. He was badly wounded. Though Sadao knows that the man is an American and an escaped prisoner of war, his trained hands seemed to be acting on their own will to stop the bleeding, and he packed the wound with sea moss that liberally strewed(cover) the beach.
9. How did the servants react when they came to know about the wounded man?
Ans. The servants were frightened when they came to know about the wounded man. The gardener said that their master should not care for the white man and tend to his wounds. The man should die since he first had been shot, after which he was also wounded by the rocks. If the master healed the wounds inflicted by the gun and the sea, they would take revenge on them. Yumi also was defiant and refused to wash the white man and said that it was none of her business.
10. Why did the servants leave Dr Sadao’s house?
Ans. The servants left the employment of Dr Sadao because they felt that it was wrong on his part to treat the wounded white man and nurse him back to health. According to them, it was treacherous on his part to save the life of the white man. World War II was going on at the time, and the Americans were the enemies of Japanese.
11. What was Hana’s reaction in the face of open defiance from the servants?
Ans. Hana was very graceful in the face of open defiance from the servants. When they left, she paid them and thanked them for their service. Though she was dismayed and terrified, she did not show it. The servants cried while leaving, but she did not cry.
12. How was Hana affected while helping Dr Sadao in operation?
Ans. Dr Sadao asked Hana to help him and give the man anaesthetic. Hana was rather distressed at the sight of the wound and the blood. The sight of blood made Hana choke. Her face turned pale. She rushed out of the room and Sadao could hear her vomit in the garden.
13. What did Hana think of when she was giving the wounded man anaesthetic?
Ans. While giving the wounded man anaesthetic, she wondered if the stories they had heard of the sufferings of prisoners were true. These used to be told by word of mouth and were usually contradictory. However, the newspapers used to report that the Japanese armies were received with joy wherever they went.
14. What did Hana think of General Takima while she saw the wounded man on the operation table?
Ans. When Hana saw the wounded man on the operation table, thoughts of the sufferings of prisoners came to her mind. She remembered General Takima, who was a cruel man and used to beat his wife. No one openly mentioned it now as he had fought a victorious battle in Manchuria. Hana wondered if he could be so cruel to his wife, would he not be cruel to a poor prisoner of war.
15. “All thought left him. He felt only the purest pleasure.” When did Dr Sadao feel so? What does it show of him as a great surgeon?
Ans. While operating on the wounded white man and extracting the bullet lodged in his body, all thought left him, and he felt only the purest pleasure. He probed the man’s body and was familiar with every atom of his body. His anatomy professor had emphasised that complete knowledge of the human body was essential to operate and carry out the surgery.
16. What did Dr Sadao do when he pulled out the last stitches and thought that the man would be well in a fortnight?
Ans. After pulling out the last stitches and thinking that the young man would be well in a fortnight, Dr Sadao went to his office and typed a letter to the Chief of Police. The letter was a detailed report of the finding of the prisoner washed up onshore. After typing it, he kept the unfinished report in a secret drawer of his desk.
17. Why did the General not want anything bad to happen to Dr Sadao?
Ans. The General was suffering from a certain medical condition, and he was being treated for the same. He might require urgent surgery and the General trusted Dr Sadoa alone to carry out the operation on him. Dr Sadao was very skilled in his work. Hence he did not want anything bad to happen to Dr Sadao.
18. Why would it be best if the American was secretly killed as proposed by the General?
Ans. The General offered to send his private assassins at night, to Dr Sadao Hoki’s house, to kill the American quietly. The assassins would not make any noise, and they would also dispose of his body. Thinking of Hana, Sadao agreed that this would be the best way out of the situation.
19. What secret plan did the General make for the American? Why couldn’t it be executed?
Ans. The General was to send his private assassins to Dr Sado’s house to quietly kill the American, and get rid of his body. He had asked Sadao, to leave open the door, from the man’s room to the garden, at night so the assassins could enter. The plan could not be executed as the health of the General worsened, and he could not think of anything else and forgot the promise he had made to Sadao.
20. What plan did Dr Sadao make for the man to escape when the General’s assassin did not come to get rid of him?
Ans. Dr Sadao made an escape plan for the white man to escape when the General’s assassins did not come to get rid of him. He planned to put food, water and extra clothing in his boat and put it to the shore that night. The man could row out to the secluded little island close to the coast. He could be on the island until he saw a Korean fishing boat pass by and take their help to leave the island.
21. What did Dr Sadao tell the American to do in case his food ran out?
Ans. Dr Sadao told the American to send a signal to him with two flashes of the flashlight at the same time as the sun dropped over the horizon. He warned him not to signal in the dark as that would be seen by others. He also advised him to catch fresh fish and eat them raw, since fire would be seen and noticed.
22. How did the General regret that he had not carried out his plan to get rid of the American? What was Dr Sadao’s reaction to it?
Ans. The General regretted that he could not carry out the plan to get rid of the American. The plan could not be executed as the health of the General worsened, and he could not think of anything else and forgot the promise he had made to Sadao. He assured Dr Sadao that the negligence was not on account of lack of patriotism or dereliction towards his duty. Sadao understood that the General was under his complete control, and as a result of that, he was perfectly safe.
23. “But Sadao searching the spot of black in the twilighted sea that night had his reward.” What was Dr Sadao’s reward?
Ans. Dr Sadao’s reward was that the American soldier was no longer on the island. There was no flash of light in the dusk. His prisoner had gone and was safe. He must have sought help from a Korean fishing boat.
24. What did Dr Sadao think of the American prejudice against Japanese like him when he had lived in America?
Ans. Dr Sadao had gone to America at the age of 22 to study all that he could about surgery and medicine. The Americans were prejudiced against the Japanese, and it was very difficult for him to find a place to live in. It was a bitter experience to endure their prejudice when he knew that he was superior to them.
25. What message does ‘The Enemy’ give?
Ans. ‘The Enemy’ sends out a message through the character and actions of Dr Sadao Hoki. Dr Sadao can rise above petty human behaviour which has become the norm today. He follows the calling of his duty as a doctor and saves the life of the wounded young American. He also arranges for him to hide on a nearby island and escape from there to freedom. ‘The Enemy’ gives us the message of peace, empathy, belief in one’s ideals and humanism.
26. While hatred against a member of the enemy is justifiable, especially during a war, what makes a human being rise above narrow prejudices?
Ans. Hatred against a member of the enemy is justifiable, especially during war. However, at times a human being rises above narrow prejudices. There are occasions in life when a choice has to be made between one’s duty as a patriotic citizen and duty towards a higher calling, humanitarianism. On finding the wounded man, Sadao cannot put him back into the water or hand him over to the authorities. His training as a doctor has taught him to save a life and not endanger it. Though he is in a conflict between his duties as a citizen and as a doctor, he chooses to save the man’s life. His empathy for the suffering and wounded person helps him rise above narrow prejudices and extend help to an enemy.
27. Why did the messenger come to Dr. Sadao? 2020
Ans: The messenger had come to Dr Sadao’s house to inform him that the old General was in pain again and had to be attended to. When Hana first saw the uniformed messenger, she got frightened, for she thought that he had come to arrest her husband for harbouring an enemy in their house.
Long Answer Questions (7 Marks each)(120-150 words)
1. Describe how Dr Sadao treated and nursed the wounded soldier?
Ans. Dr Sadao operated upon the wounded man and extracted the bullet from his body. The man washed up on their shore was a young American, and he was an escaped prisoner of war. On the shore itself, he packed the wound with sea moss, after which he and Hana took the man to their home, to the bedroom which had been his father’s. He operated immediately as any delay would result in the death of the injured man. After the successful operation, he used to carefully examine the man’s wound daily. He removed the stitches when it was time to do so. When the man was slightly better, he told him to remain on his feet for five minutes at a time. Finally, when the young man was well enough, he made an escape plan for him and arranged for him to remain hidden on the island nearby till he could get help from a passing Korean fishing boat.
2. Explain the role of Hana in the recovery of the wounded soldier.
Ans. When the man was brought into the room and laid on the mat, Hana washed him since the servants were not willing to touch the white man and felt that he deserved to die. Hana helped Sadao while he was operating on the white man. She gave him anaesthetic. She anxiously hoped that he had not been tortured like prisoners were, according to the stories that she had heard. Then she noticed the red scars on his neck below his ear. When he was recovering, she served him food herself since the servants were defiant and did not help in anything involving the wounded soldier. She told him not to be afraid and fed him with a spoon. She felt moved to comfort him and encouraged him, saying that soon he would be strong.
3. How did the marriage between Dr Sadao and Hana come to materialise? What impression do you form of both of them as husband and wife?
Ans. Dr Sadao met Hana for the first time at Professor Harley’s house. He waited to fall in love with her till he was sure that she was Japanese. When his father had seen her, the marriage was arranged in the traditional Japanese way, though Sadao and Hana had talked everything over beforehand.
Though they have been married for several years and have two children, they are a perfect couple. There are love and mutual respect in their relationship. Both are very supportive of each other’s decisions. As a husband, Sadao is caring and protective. Most of the decisions he takes about the American soldier are to relieve her anxiety. When the servants leave work, he helps her with the children. As a wife, Hana supports her husband in his decisions. She is also traditional in some aspects like, she doesn’t eat with him but serves him first. She is graceful in difficult and intimidating situations. Sadao and Hana can rise above petty prejudices and be compassionate human beings.
4. How do the servants oppose the nursing of the wounded American at their master’s house? What does it show of them?
Ans. The servants were frightened when they came to know about the wounded man. The gardener said that their master should not care for the white man and tend to his wounds. The man should die since he first had been shot, after which he was also wounded by the rocks. Yumi also was defiant and refused to wash the white man and said that it was none of her business. They were openly critical about Sadao treating the white man. The gardener, cook and Yumi left the employment of Dr Sadao because they felt that it was wrong on his part to treat the wounded white man and nurse him back to health. According to them, it was treacherous on his part to save the life of the white man. World War II was going on at the time, and the Americans were the enemies of the Japanese.
The servants’ reaction shows their narrow mindedness and inability to see beyond their prejudices. They do not display humanitarianism or compassion.
5. What did Dr Sadao think of American prejudice vis-a-vis the Japanese humanism?
Ans. Dr Sadao had gone to America at the age of 22 to study all that he could about surgery and medicine. He spent eight years there before coming back to Japan. In America, he faced discrimination and was subject to people’s prejudiced behaviour. The Americans were prejudiced against the Japanese, and it was very difficult for him to find a place to live in. It was a bitter experience to endure their prejudice when he knew that he was superior to them. Though he had been a victim of racial prejudice in America, Dr Sadao is not prejudiced against the American soldier. He shows compassion and humanity towards him and saves his life.
6. Draw a character sketch of Dr Sadao as depicted in ‘The Enemy’. 2019
Ans. Dr. Sadao Hokieis, a skilled surgeon and scientist. He is a compassionate human being and dares to stand by his principles. He is an obedient son and listened to his father. As a husband, he is caring and considerate. As a doctor, he believes that he must do whatever he can to save a person’s life. He was not sent along with the troops as he was perfecting an invention to render wounds completely clean. Besides this, he was also required to carry out an emergency operation on the old General, if needed. He operates the General with success. He deftly carries out surgery on the American soldier and saves his life. He knows that he would be arrested for harbouring a prisoner of war, yet he takes this risk to save the American soldier’s life. He brings him home, operates on him and nurses him back to health. He is a man of courage and rises above the narrow-minded norms set by society and followed by the vast majority of people.
7. Explain how Hana proves to be an example of great humanism and an able companion to Dr Sadao.
Ans. Hana is a compassionate human being and not bound by the norms that govern the vast majority to be prejudiced. She doesn’t want to put the wounded American soldier back into the sea through both Sadao, and she knows that it would be the best thing to do. She hopes that he was not subject to torture like how prisoners were usually tortured according to stories that she had heard.
She is an able companion to Dr Sadao as seen in the story. She supports him in his decision to operate on the soldier and save his life. She helps him in the operation by giving the anaesthetic. When the man was recovering, she served him food herself since the servants were defiant and did not help in anything involving the wounded soldier. She told him not to be afraid and fed him with a spoon. She felt moved to comfort him and encouraged him, saying that soon he would be strong. When the servants leave work, she does not complain but faces the situation with grace. She stands by her husband and supports him in his decisions.
8. Describe in detail how Dr Sadao and Hana tended to the American soldier, nursing him to recovery.
Ans. Dr Sadao and Hana took a lot of care of the wounded American soldier tending to him and nursing him to recovery. Dr Sadao operated upon the wounded man and extracted the bullet from his body. The man washed up on their shore was a young American, and he was an escaped prisoner of war. On the shore itself, he packed the wound with sea moss, after which he and Hana took the man to their home, to the bedroom which had been his father’s. He operated immediately as any delay would result in the death of the injured man. After the successful operation, he used to carefully examine the man’s wound daily. He removed the stitches when it was time to do so. When the man was slightly better, he told him to remain on his feet for five minutes at a time. Finally, when the young man was well enough, he made an escape plan for him and arranged for him to remain hidden on the island nearby till he could get help from a passing Korean fishing boat.
Hana too had a large part in the recovery of the American soldier. When the man was brought into the room and laid on the mat, she washed him since the servants were not willing to touch the white man and felt that he deserved to die. Hana helped Sadao while he was operating on the white man. She gave him anaesthetic. She anxiously hoped that he had not been tortured like prisoners were, according to the stories that she had heard. When he was recovering, she served him food herself since the servants were defiant and did not help in anything involving the wounded soldier. She told him not to be afraid and fed him with a spoon. She felt moved to comfort him and encouraged him, saying that soon he would be strong.
9. How is ‘The Enemy’ a great moral lesson in spreading love all over the world by transcending narrow prejudices of hatred and animosity?
Ans. Pearl Buck’s short story, ‘The Enemy’ is indeed a great moral lesson in spreading love all over the world by transcending narrow prejudices of hatred and animosity. When Dr Sadao sees the American soldier washed up on the beach near their house, he does not see him as an enemy, but as a badly wounded human being in need of immediate help. While operating on Tom, Dr Sadao calls him, “my friend “, as that was his way of referring to all his patients. Sadao and Hana show compassion and humanity instead of practising animosity and hatred. Their actions should induce readers to overcome barriers of prejudice and be good human beings. They also dared to offer refuge to a prisoner of war. If it was discovered Dr Sadao could have been arrested. However, Dr Sadao and Hana tend to the prisoner and nurse him back to health. Once he is well enough, Dr Sadao makes arrangements for him to reach the secluded island close to the coast from where he could take help from a passing Korean fishing boat.
10. Explain how Dr Sadao becomes a rare example of sheer devotion to one’s professional duty while at the same time upholding his duties towards his country.
Ans. Dr Sadao is a rare and shining example of sheer devotion to one’s professional duty while at the same time upholding his duties towards his country. He is a skilled surgeon and scientist. He was perfecting a discovery that would render wounds completely clean. As a doctor, he believes that he must do whatever he can to save a person’s life. He knows that the prisoner is American, and the Americans were their enemies, yet he doesn’t hesitate to operate on him and save his life.