Class 12 Political Science Notes pdf- Chapter 5

Hey guys! Most of the students are scrounging for political science notes for class 12 and all their efforts are in vain. So to bring a smile on your face. I have provided here NCERT Political Science Class 12 Notes Chapter 5 ALTERNATIVE CENTRES OF POWER– CBSE AND AHSEC. I hope you like this post. Keep visiting!!!

Social Media Conference YouTube Thumbnail6

UNIT – 5



1. What is mean by South Asia?

Ans. South Asia in the entire global region is an area which is a house of many internal strife’s and global conflicts.

2. Is China a part of South Asia?

Ans. No, China is not a part of South Asia.

3. Which was the first country to liberalize its economy in the South Asian region?

Ans. Sri Lanka was the first country to liberalize its economy in the South Asian region.

4. Write the full form of SAARC.

Ans. South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation is the full form of SAARC.

5. Write ‘yes’ or ‘no’.

SAFTA was signed at the 12th SAARC summit in Islamabad.

Ans. Yes.

6. Why did India spend IPKF to Sri Lanka?

Ans. Indian Peace Keeping Force was constituted in 1988 following an accord signed between India and Sri Lanka to oversee the surrender of the Tamil militants and for constituting the eastern and northern peninsula of Sri Lanka to one administrative unit with an elected Provincial Council and a chief minister.

7. Fill in the blanks: The Politics of Sri Lanka is dominated by majority ____ community.

Ans. Sinhalese.

8. Which country is a part of India’s ‘Look East Policy’?

Ans. China is a part of India’s “Look East Policy”.

9. Where did India conduct nuclear test in 1998?

Ans. India conducted nuclear test in 1998 at Pokhran.

10. What is the main objective of SAARC?

Ans. The main objective of SAARC is to promote regional cooperation in South Asia.

11. When India and Pakistan became independent states?

Ans. India became independent on 15th August, 1947 and Pakistan on 14th August, 1947.

12. At which place 14th SAARC Summit was held?

Ans. 14th SAARC summit was held in New Delhi, 2007.

13. In which year India sent peace keeping force to Sri Lanka?

Ans. In 1987 India sent peace keeping force to Sri Lanka.

14. In which year India and Pakistan conducted nuclear tests?

Ans. India and Pakistan conducted nuclear test in 1998.

15. When Sri Lanka became independent state?

Ans. Sri Lanka became independent in 1948.

16. Where the first SAARC Summit was held?

Ans. First SAARC summit was held in Dhaka in 1985.

17. When SAARC was established?

Ans. SAARC was established in 1985.

18. In which year multi-party system was introduced Maldives?

Ans. Multi-party system was introduced in Maldives in June 2005.

19. At which place 15th SAARC Summit was held?

Ans. 15th SAARC summit was held in Colombo, 2008.

20. Which Indian Prime Minister understood bus journey to Lahore?

Ans. Atal Bihari Bajpayee visited Lahore by bus journey.


1. Mention the names of any four countries included in South Asia.

Ans. Bangladesh, India, Bhutan and Maldives are the four countries included in South Asia.

2. Fill in the blanks:

Bangladesh was a part of Pakistan from ___ to ___.

Ans. 1947, 1971

3. Mention the names of the two conflicting communities in Sri Lanka.

Ans. Sinhalese and Tamils are the two conflicting communities in Sri Lanka.

4. What is Look East Policy?

Ans. ‘Look East Policy’ is a famous policy launched in 1991 to increase greater cooperation and closeness between India and other South Asian countries. It has helped to develop free trade between India and South Asian countries.

5. How did Pakistan respond to Indian nuclear test?

Ans. Pakistan was inked by India’s nuclear test in 1974 and 1998. On both the occasions, Pakistan accused India of external aggression and stated that the nuclear weapons will be used against Pakistan. She also doubted India’s peaceful use of nuclear technology.

6. Mention two issues on which Indian and Bangladesh cooperate.

Ans. The two issues on which Indian and Bangladesh cooperate are –

  1. Since India had helped in the creation of Bangladesh it was natural for both states to have a cordial relationship. In 1972, both states signed at friendship and an agreement on trade.
  2. The Farraka Accard of 1977 further strengthened the relations between the two states. It helped Bangladesh to make up for the deficiency of water during summers.

7. Do you think India and Nepal have any special relationship? How?

Ans. Yes, India and Nepal have special relationship regarding many issues –

  1. India and Nepal shares 17 kms of completely open, geographical continuous territory and therefore easily accessible border. Both countries have close religious and linguistic affinities and there has been a free flow of people and goods across the traditional boundaries. There are shared security concerns between the two.
  2. With the restoration of the democratic set up in Nepal, increased cooperation through SAARC and Indian liberalization of the economy after 1991, the relationship between the two improved.

8. Write any two efforts made by India in main SAARC an effective organization?

Ans. India has forwarded co-operation with the South Asian nations. Economic relations has been increased and India has provided a helping hand for resolving some crisis in Maldives, Sri Lanka and Nepal.

9. What does SAFTA stand for?

Ans. SAFTA stands for South Asian Free Trade Agreement.

10. Write the meaning of LTTE?

Ans. Liberation Tigers for Tamil Elan

11. How was democracy restored in Nepal over monarchy?

Ans. Pro-democracy movement in Nepal become stronger and the king accepted the demand for a new constitution. The communist party of Nepal started a bid to replace the royal parliamentary system with people’s Socialist republic by violent means. In 2006, democracy was established in Nepal.

12. Write any two areas of conflict between India and Pakistan?

Ans. Kashmir issue and Border issue and problem of river water sharing have affected India-Pakistan relations.

13. Name the Seven countries that from the SAARC?

Ans. The seven countries of SAARC are –

Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka

14. Mention the names of the countries which entered into Free Trade Agreement in Dec. 1998.

Ans. India and Sri Lanka signed free Trade Agreement in Dec, 1998.

15. Write the name of two observer states of SAARC?

Ans. India and Pakistan

16. Name the members of SAARC?

Ans. The members of SAARC are –

India, Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Maldives

17. Name the countries which are known South Asia?

Ans. India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Maldives, Sri Lanka. Afghanistan.

18. Name the countries who signed Farakka Treaty?

Ans. India and Pakistan signed Farakka Treaty.

19. Mention any two countries in South of India who are members of SAARC.

Ans. Sri Lanka and Maldives

20. Give the significance of Tashkent Agreement.

Ans. Tashkent Agreement was signed between India and Pakistan in the year 1965. According to the agreement, both the countries affirmed the need for a negotiated peaceful settlement of disputes.

21. Mention two areas each of Co-operation and disagreement between India and Bangladesh?

Ans. For cooperation:

  1. Look East Policy,
  2. Disaster management.

        For disagreement:

  1. Ganga and Brahamaputra water river sharing.
  2. Migration from Bangladesh.


1. Mention the factors which have contributed to Pakistan’s failure in building a stable democracy. [2013]

Ans. Several factors have contributed to Pakistan’s failure in building a stable democracy. These can be mention    like –

  1. Social Dominance: The social dominance of the military, clergy and landowning aristocracy has led to the frequent overthrow of elected government and the establishment of military government.
  2. Conflict with India: Pakistan’s conflict with India has made the pro-military groups more powerful. These groups have often said that political parties and democracy in Pakistan are flowed, that Pakistan’s security would be harmed by selfish minded parties and chaotic democracy and that the army’s stay in power is therefore, justified.
  3. Lack of International Support: The lack of genuine international support for democratic rule in Pakistan has further encouraged the military to continue its dominance. The United States and other western countries have encouraged the military’s authoritarian rule in the past, for their own reasons.
  4. Global Islam Terrorism: As the western powers, assumed the threat of “Global Islamic Terrorism” and the apprehension that Pakistan’s nuclear arsenal might fall into the hands of these terrorist groups, the military regime in Pakistan has been seen as the protestor of western interests in West Asia and South Asia.

2. Mention two areas of both conflict and cooperation between India and Bangladesh.

Ans. Two areas of co-operation between India and Bangladesh –

  1. On Disaster Management and Environmental areas the two states have cooperated regularly.
  2. Bangladesh is a part of India’s gaze east policy that wants to link up with south East Asia via Myanmar.

Two areas of disagreement between India and Bangladesh –

  1. The Indian government has been unhappy with Bangladesh’s denial of illegal immigration to India.
  2. Conflict over sharing of the Ganga and Brahmaputra River waters.

3. What were the basic reasons for the formation of SAARC?

Ans. SAARC stands for South Asian Association of Regional Co-operation. SAARC in a major regional initiative by the South-Asian states to evolve co-operation through multilateral means. The reasons for which SAARC was established-

  1. To promote collective self-reliance.
  2. Acceleration of economic growth in the region.
  3. Collaboration amongst member states on economic social, cultural and technical scientific fronts.
  4. Promotion of regional Co-operation.
  5. Suppression of terrorism and smuggling.

4. Write a note on Panchsheel?

Ans. The Panchasheela was formulated by Late Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru. It is the main basis of India’s foreign policy. This principle is taken from the philosophy of Buddhism. The Panchasheela comprises five principles –

  1. Peaceful Co-existence.
  2. Non-aggression.
  3. Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity.
  4. Equality and mutual benefit.

5. Write the points of difference between India and Nepal.

Ans. Indo-Nepal relationship has been discussed under two headings. They are –

(i) Issue of Conflict –

  1. In 1960’s and 1970’s, India and Nepal saw bitterness in their relationship. The Chinese aggression in 1962 brought a temporary than in bitterness. Under the pressure of the war and its outcome India had to relent in its sympathies for the democratic forces in Nepal and take prompt and effective steps to make up with the king.
  2. Indian government has often expressed displeasure at the warm relationship between Nepal and China and at the Nepal government’s inaction against and India elements.
  3. The Maoist movement in Nepal is taken as a security threat by India has given rise to Naxalite groups in various Indian states from Bihar in north to Andhra Pradesh in the South.

(ii) Issues of Cooperation –

  1. India and Nepal shares 1700 kms of completely open, geographically contiguous territory and therefore easily accessible border. Both countries have close religious and linguistic affinities and there has been a free flow of people and goods across the traditional boundaries. There are shared security concerns between the two.
  2. A Treaty of Trade and Commerce was signed by which relations between the two improved further. This treaty gave the full and unrestricted sight of commercial transit of goods and manufactures through the territory and parts of India.
  3. With the reference of the democratic net up in Nepal, increased cooperation through SAARC and Indian liberalization of the economy after 1991, the relationship between the two improved.

6. ‘Military rule and Democracy are the two sides of the same coin in Pakistan’ – Explain?

Ans. Pakistan’s rule since its inception was a mixture of both military rule and democracy. This can be proved with the following examples –

  1. Immediately after the implementation of Pakistan’s first constitution, General Ayub Khan took over the administration of the country and soon got himself elected. But there was popular dissatisfaction against his rule which in turn gave way to a military dictatorship under General Ayub Khan.
  2. After 1971 Indo-Pak War an elected government was formed under the leadership of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto but after six years the Bhutto government was removed by General Zia-ul-Haq in 1977.
  3. But very soon General Zia faced pro-democracy movement from 1982 onwards and an elected democratic government was established once again in 1988 under the leadership of Benazir Bhutto.
  4. This phase of elected democracy again halted and Benazir Bhutto was replaced by Nawaz Sharif.
  5. Very soon army again stepped in Pakistan’s democracy in which Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif was removed by General Pervez Musharraf in 1999.
  6. Later on in 2005 he got himself elected as the President and he continued his rule till 2009.

      Thus, we can easily conclude that military rule and democracy are the two sides of the same coin.


1. When was SAFTA signed? What is the main objective of SAFTA?

Ans. The term SAFTA stands for South Asian Free Trade Agreement. It was signed in 2004 at the 12th SAARC summit in Islamabad to provide for a free trade zone for the whole of South Asian.

      It was SAPTA which gradually progressed to SAFTA. The leaders at the tenth SAARC summit in Colombo decided to set up a committee of experts to conclude a treaty by 2001 on SAFTA.

      By this, items listed by the countries would be traded free from custom restrictions and duties.

      SAFTA would ensure free flow of items between the South Asia countries and promote and sustain mutual trade and economic co-operation in the region.

      The spirit behind the idea of SAFTA is that the peace and cooperation would evolve in South Asia if all the countries in the region allow free trade across the borders.

      The agreement of SAFTA came into effect on 1st January 2006. SAFTA aims at lowering trade tariffs by 2007 upto 20%.

2. Describe the role of the Played for promotion of World peace.

Ans. India’s role in the United Nations can be understood from the following points –

  1. Policy of Neutrality: India has adopted the policy of neutrality in her external and international affairs. In United Nations also she has supported as opposed on any issue in sense of neutrality and the rightness of the issue.
  2. Universal Declaration of Human Rights: On December 10, 1948 the General Assembly of the UNO adopted and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
  3. Peaceful Solution of disputes: India has always tried to find out a peaceful solution of her disputes with other nations. In 1965, at the time of Indo-Pak war India accepted the cease-fire and respected the solution on ceasefire of Security Council of the UN.
  4. Peace-keeping operations: In most of the peace-keeping operations India has backed UNO and have sent soldiers to assist the peace-keeping operations.

3. Point out some suggestion to improve the relation of India with Pakistan?

Ans. Some of the recent agreements between India and Pakistan are as follows –

  1. On February 2007, India and Pakistan signed an agreement on reducing the risk from accident relating to nuclear weapons.
  2. Both the countries have recently agreed not to attack each other’s nuclear facilities.
  3. Both the countries have agreed to start a wide ranging composite dialogue with the objective of reaching a peaceful settlement on all bilateral issues including Kashmir.
  4. Both the nations have also agreed to check cross-border terrorism. Terrorist organizations would be dealt with strong hands.

4. ‘Democracy is an accepted norm in the entire of South Asia’. Explain.

Ans. It is rightly said democracy has become an accepted norm in the entire region of South-Asia, India and Sri Lanka are the two countries in South Asia which have successfully operated a democratic system. Pakistan and Bangladesh have experienced democracy in recent time. Nepal which was a monarchy, in 2006 it has decided to transform into democracy permanently.

5. What are the main problems of South Asia?

Ans. The main problems of South Asia are –

  1. Geographical distinctiveness.
  2. Language and religion.
  3. Colonialism and its impact.
  4. Economic growth rate and human development.
  5. Cross border linkages.
  6. Political systems.

6. What are the areas of conflict in between India and Sri Lanka?

Ans. The areas of conflict in between India and Sri Lanka are –

  1. A large number of Migrants from India, primarily Tamils, who have lived in Sri Lanka since the British era, were now marginalized and deprived of their rights of the Sinhalese government.
  2. The neglect and discrimination against Tamils led to Tamil nationalism and in 1983, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) started an armed struggle against the Sri Lankan government.
  3. The government of India has tried to negotiate the ‘Tamil question’ with the Sri Lankan government.
  4. On 19 May, 2009 the President of Sri Lanka officially claimed an end to the insurgency and the defeat of the LTTE, following the death of Velupillai Prabhakaran and much of the LTTE’s other senior leadership.

7. What are the areas of conflict in between India and Pakistan?

Ans. The areas of conflict in between India and Pakistan are –

  1. Partition of the former British India into India and Pakistan displaced up to 12.5 million people, with estimates of loss of life varying from several hundred thousand to a million.
  2. Wars between India and Pakistan in 1947 – 48 have failed to resolve the dispute over Kashmir.
  3. Events such as:
  4. Indian (test in Pokhran) and Pakistani nuclear tests (In Chagai Hills) in 1998;
  5. Kargil war in 1999.
  6. While there have been numerous attempts to improve the relationship, notably, the Agra summit (2001) and the Lahore summit (1999).

8. Explain the relationship between India and Sri Lanka.

Ans. India and Sri Lanka have established diplomatic relations when the latter gained its independence in 1948. But since them, the relations between the two countries have been overshadowed by events occurring in North and East of Sri Lanka and the plight of Tamils in Sri Lanka.

  1. There have been several incidents of firing on Indian fishermen fishing in Palk Bay by the Sri Lankan navy. Indian Government has taken up the issue of safety of Indian fishermen on a priority basis with the Government of Sri Lanka.
  2. India has also helped Sri Lanka in the post-tsunami reconstruction efforts, and this has brought two countries closer to each other.

9. Explain the relationship between India and Bhutan.

Ans. The effort of the Bhutanese government to flush out terror groups of Northeast India from its kingdom has been well received by the Indian authorities.

      India and Bhutan have also been engaged in many big hydroelectric projects; and Indian is Bhutan largest trading partner, accounting for 98 percent of its exports and 90 percent of its imports. Thus relations with Bhutan continue to remain stable and warm.

10. Explain the relationship between India and Maldives.

Ans. (1) ‘Operation Cactus’ by Indian forces in 1988 helped overthrow a coup led by Tamil militants in Maldives and restoration of the Maldivian government brought both nations even closer in friendship and cooperation.

          (2) India has provided extensive economic aid and has participated in bilateral programs for the development of infrastructure, health, civil aviation, telecommunications and labour resources.

11. Explain the objectives of SAARC.

Ans. The main objectives of SAARC are as follows –

  1. To promote the welfare f the people of South Asia and to improve their quality of life;
  2. To promote and strengthen collective self-reliance among the countries of South Asia;
  3. To contribute to mutual trust, understanding and appreciation of one another’s problems;
  4. To promote active collaboration and mutual assistance in the economic, social, cultural, technical and scientific fields;
  5. To strengthen cooperation with other developing countries;
  6. To strengthen cooperation among themselves in international forums on matters of common interest;
close button
Indigo Chapter Important Questions class 12 Margot Robbie shocking statement about ” Pirates of Caribbean” Gift of the Magi story- Main Points