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UNIT – 6
Table of Contents
VERY SHORT ANSWER (1 Mark)
1. “Jaw-Jaw is better than war-war” Who made this comment?
Ans. “Jaw-Jaw is better than war-war” – was commented by Shashi Tharoor, the former UN Under Secretary-General for communications and Public Information.
2. How many members signed the UN Charter when it was set up?
Ans. 51 members signed the UN Charter when it was set up.
3. What is the main objective of UN?
Ans. The main objective of UN is to maintain inter nation peace and security.
4. At present how many member states are thee in the UN?
Ans. At present there are 192 members in the UN.
5. Fill in the blank:
There are ____ permanent members in the UN Security Council.
6. Who is the present Secretary General of UNO?
Ans. Ban-ki-Moon is the present Secretary General of the UNO.
7. Write the full form of IAEA.
Ans. The full form of IAEA is International Atomic Energy Agency.
8. What is meant by veto power?
Ans. ‘Veto Power’ is a negative power which is entrusted in the hands of the permanent member of security council.
9. Who was the first Secretary General of the UN?
Ans. Trygue Lie was the first Secretary General of the UN.
10. Which country is the single largest contributor to the UN?
Ans. United States of America (USA) is the single largest contributor to the UN.
11. Which date is celebrated as United Nations Day? 
Ans. 24th October is celebrated as United Nations Day.
12. Who was first Woman President of the UN Assembly?
Ans. Smt. Vijay Laxmi Pandit was the first woman president of the UN Assembly.
13. In which year UN launched the Peace Building Fund?
Ans. In 2006 UN Launched Peace Building Fund.
14. What do you mean by the ‘Big three’?
Ans. Big three means Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin.
15. Name the International agency relating to environmental programme?
Ans. United Nation’s Environment programme established in 1972 relating to environmental programme
16. Name the highest functionary of the UN?
Ans. General Assembly in the highest functioning agency of U.N
17. When the Peace Building Commission was established?
Ans. Peace Building Commission was formed in December, 2005
18. Who was the main mover in the Mine Ban Treaty of 1997?
Ans. An NGO coalition was the prime mover on the Mine Ban Treaty of 1997.
19. When UN Millennium Declaration was ratified?
Ans. In 2000 U.N. Millennium Declaration was ratified.
20. What is the relevance of United Nations in a Unipolar world?
Ans. United Nations is playing an important role in establishing peace and security in the world.
21. Write one weakness of NGOs?
Ans. UNO has no power to enforce its decisions.
22. When India become a member of UN?
Ans. India becomes member of U.N. in 1945.
VERY SHORT ANSWER (2 Marks)
1. What is the need for international organization?
Ans. International Organizations importance can be laid down in the following two points –
- International Organizations are helpful in finding peaceful solution of a dispute between countries. Countries show a tendency to cooperate and make better living conditions for all the people. Thus, it helps member states to find an amicable solution to their outstanding problems.
- International organizations are helpful in another way. There are issues that are so challenging that they can only be dealt with when everyone works together. For example, some disease, can only be eradicated if everyone in the world cooperates in vaccinating their population.
2. Do you think that the international organization is a super state? Justify your answer.
Ans. No, I don’t think that international organization is a super state with authority over its members. It is created by and responds to states. It comes into being when states agree to its creation. Once created, it can help member’s states resolve their problems peacefully. Therefore it would be more acceptable to say that it is say that it is a super state.
3. Write the names of the permanent members of UN Security Council.
Ans. The names of the permanent members of Security Council are –
Russia, USA, China, Britain and France
4. Mention two privileges enjoyed by the permanent members of the Security Council.
Ans. The two privileges enjoyed by the permanent members of the Security Council are –
- The five permanent members enjoy veto power.
- The permanent member has the power it take all important issues of international arena relating to peace and security.
5. What is Amnesty International?
Ans. Amnesty International is a non-governmental organization (NGO) which was established with the aim of protecting human rights all over the world.
6. What is the relevance of the UN in the present day world?
Ans. Relevance of the UN in present day world is –
- With the growing interaction and interdependence all over the world, it is hard to think that seven billion people throughout the world could survive without an international organization.
- International organizations are giving a platform to the countries of the world to discuss their tensions and problems by sitting together. It has allowed the process of discussion and conciliation which are peaceful ways to resolve a disputed matter.
7. Write the names of two NGOs which are concerned with protection of human rights all over the world.
Ans. Human Rights watch and Amnesty International are two famous NGO’s which are concerned with protection of Human Rights all over the world.
8. Mention the names of two agencies of the UN which deal with social & economic issues.
Ans. UNESCO and World Health Organization are the two agencies of the UN which deal with social and economic issues.
9. What has been India’s stand on disarmament?
Ans. India’s stand for disarmament is very strong. India was always against war. India always supports peace and non-violence. India adopts the policy of non-alignment India adopts the policy of co-operation and understanding in international affairs.
10. Where Secretariat of the UN is situated? Who is the first Secretary-General of UN?
Ans. Secretariat of the UN situated at New York city of the USA and Trygue Lie was the first General Secretary of the UNO.
11. What are the functions of the Secretary Council?
Ans. Same as Ans. Q. No. 1
12. When was the charter of UN signed? By 2006 how many member states are there?
Ans. The charter of United Nations was signed on 26th June 1945, By 2006, the UN had 192 members.
13. The UN Security Council has ____ permanent and ____ non permanent members?
Ans. The UN Security Council has 5 permanent and 10 non-permanent members.
14. Write the composition of the Security Council?
Ans. The Security Council is composed by two type of members. There are five permanent members and ten non-permanent members.
15. Write the name of agencies which deal with social and economies issues?
Ans. Economic and Social Council deals with Social and Economic issues
16. Why are reforms in the UN required?
Ans. The reform is UN is required so that more countries can be accommodated in the Security Council.
17. What makes the UN an indispensable organization?
Ans. United Nations is an indispensable organization because it can settle international dispute with peaceful methods and thus can promote world peace and security.
18. Name any two military alliances.
Ans. The two military alliances are –
- NATO and
LONG ANSWER (4 Marks)
1. Write a short note on WTO.
Ans. The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an international organization which sets the rules for global trade. This organization was set up in 1995 as the successor to the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT) created after the Second World War. It has 150 members. All decisions are taken unanimously but the major economic powers such as the US, EU and Japan have managed to use the WTO to frame the rules of trade to advance their own interests. The developing countries often complain of non-transparent procedures and being pushed around by big powers.
2. In which year the World Bank was created? Discuss its activities.
Ans. The World Bank was created immediately after the Second World War.
The following are the functions of the World Bank:
- The World Bank works for human development, agriculture and rural development, environmental protection, infrastructure and governance.
- It provides loans and grants to the member countries. In this way it exercises enormous influence on the economic policies of developing countries.
- The World Bank promotes the long range balanced growth of international trade and maintenance of equilibrium in the balance of payments by encouraging international investment of productive resources.
- To assist in the reconstruction and development of the territories of the members by facilitating investment of capital.
3. Name some specialized agencies of the UN?
Ans. The following are the specialized agencies of United Nations –
- FAO: Food and Agricultural Organization.
- WHO: World Health Organization.
- ILO: International Labour Organization.
- UNESCO: United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization.
- UNICEF: United Nations Children’s Emergency Fund.
4. Name the four architects of the non-aligned Movement?
Ans. For architects of Non-alignment movement –
- Josip Broz Tito.
- Jawaharlal Nehru.
- Gamel Abdul Naser.
- Kwame Nkrumah.
5. Why do only the permanent members of the Security Council have the right of veto power?
Ans. The charter of United Nations has made this provisions that only the permanent members of the Security Council shall have the right to veto. Thus the big-five members enjoy special status in UN.
6. Why is an International Organization required in the World arena? Explain its role?
Ans. An international organization is required in the world arena for the following reasons –
- International organizations are helpful in finding peaceful solution of a dispute between countries. Countries show a tendency to co-operate and make better living conditions for all the people. Thus international organization helps member states to find an amicable solution to their outstanding problems.
- International organizational is helpful in another way. There are issues that are so challenging that they can only be dealt with when everyone works together. For example, some disease, can only be eradicated if everyone in the world cooperates in Vaccinating their population.
7. Write the changes that have occurred in the functioning of the UN after the Cold War?
Ans. After the end of the cold war America, no doubt, has become the only superpower in the world. There is no serious rival who can prevent America from doing whatever it wants. In such a situation, the United Nations is the only body which can prevent arbitrary actions of America.
United States power cannot be checked easily because UN is located un US and many officials of UN are United States nationals. UN is located at New York, US. Moreover US contributes huge amount to UN as grant and even US enjoys the veto power in the United Nations Security Council.
The UN is not therefore a great balance to US. Nevertheless, in a Unipolar world in which US is dominant, the UNO can and has served to bring the USA and the rest of the world into discussions over various issues, US leaders, in spite of their frequent criticism of the UN, do see the organization as serving a purpose in bringing together over 190 nations in dealing with conflict and social and economic development. The UN provides an arena in which it is possible to modify US attitudes and policies. While the rest of the world is rarely united against Washington, and while it is virtually impossible to balance US power, the United Nations does provide a space within which arguments against specific US attitude and policies are heard and compromises and concessions can be shaped
Conclusion: In conclusion, it can be said that importance of Un cannot be undermined though it is an imperfect body to US. In a globalized world, the importance of UN is ever increasing. People and government will have to find ways off supporting and using the UN and other international organizations in ways that are consisted with their own interests and the interests of the international community more broadly.
8. Discuss the activities of the World Bank. Who is the president Secretary General of the World Bank?
Ans. The activities of the World Bank are mentioned in the following ways –
- The World Bank workers for human development, agriculture and rural development, environmental protection and microstructure development.
- World Bank provides loans and grants to the member countries.
- The World Bank workers for balanced growth of international trade and encourage international investments in developing countries.
- The World Bank assists in the reconstruction and development of the territories of the members by facilitating investment of capital.
9. What are the major Global challenges which are faced by the World today?
Ans. The major global challenges which are faced by the world today are –
- Spread of HIV/AIDS.
10. Name the international agencies of the UN.
Ans. The international agencies of the UN are –
- World Health Organization.
- International Monetary Fund.
- International Atomic Energy Agency.
- International Labour Organization.
VERY LONG ANSWER (6 Marks)
1. What changes occurred after the cold war?
Ans. The UN was established in 1945 immediately after the Second World War. They way it was organized and the way it functioned reflected the realities of world politics after the Second World War. After the cold war, those realities are different.
Here are some of the changes that have occurred after the cold war –
- The Soviet Union has collapsed.
- The US is the strongest power.
- The relationship between Russia, the successor to the Soviet Union and the US is much more cooperative.
- China is fast emerging as a great power, and India also is growing rapidly.
- The economics of Asia are growing at an unprecedented rate.
- Many new countries have joined the UN (as they became independent from the Soviet Union or former communist states in Eastern Europe).
2. Mention the criteria that have been proposed for the inclusion of the new permanent and non-permanent members of the Security Council?
Ans. There is a huge controversy going on ever expansion of few organs of UN and restructuring of this peace-making organization. India has welcomed this decision and awaits its restructuring.
India has supported the revitalization of UN on several grounds. They are –
- She believes that a strengthened and revitalized UN is desirable in a changing world.
- India also supports an enhanced role for the UN in promoting development and co-operation among the states.
- India believes that development should be central to the UN’s agenda as it is a vital precondition for the maintenance of peace and security.
One of India’s major concerns had been the composition of the Security Council, which has largely remained static. India considers that this has harmed the representative character of the Security Council. She also argues that an expanded Council, with more representation, will enjoy greater support in the world community.
3. What are the methods used by the United Nations to achieve its aims?
Ans. The methods used by the United Nations to achieve its aims are –
- Peaceful settlement of disputes.
- International understanding based on the principle of cooperation and justice.
4. Discuss the main aims and objective and principles of UNO?
Ans. The aims and objectives of the UNO are –
- To establish international peace and security and to take immediate steps to avoid wars.
- To ensure universal peace, goodwill and co-operation among nations for the welfare of mankind.
- To promote economic, social, cultural and humanitarian relationship in international level.
- To acts as centre for harmonizing the action of nations to achieve above objectives.
5. Write a short essay on the achievements and failures of the UNO as a world body? 
Ans. After the collapse of Soviet Union and the end of cold war U.N.A. is the only super-power left in the world. There is no country which can prevent U.S.A from doing whatever it wants. In such a situation U.N.O. is the only body which can prevent arbitrary actions of U.S.A. Secondly, even within the U.N., U.S.A has considerable influence. As the single largest contribution to the U.N. it has unmatched financial power. Besides, the location of U.N. headquarters in New York (U.S.A) has also contributed to increase its influence. U.S.A has a large number of its nationals in the U.N. bureaucracy. It also enjoys Veto power which ensures that U.S.A has considerable voice in the choice of the Secretary General. Under these conditions, U.N.O. cannot be a great balance to the U.S.A. However, in a Unipolar world in which U.S.A is the only dominant power, the U.N. can and has served to bring the U.S.A. and other countries into discussions over various issues. In the end it can be said that though U.N. is an imperfect body, but without it the world would be worse off. With growing links between societies and issues – what we call interdependence – it is hard to imagine how more than? billion people would live together without an organization such as U.N.O. Thus, U.N.O is an indispensable body in the present world.
6. What are the reasons for the establishment of “UNO”?
Ans. Various reasons were responsible for the establishment of the U.N.O.
- The Disastrous Consequences of the Second World War: The Second World War was more destructive than the first one. About 15 million people were killed.
- Permanent Peace in the World: On seeing the disastrous results of the Second World War, all the countries felt the need that there should be an organization which could establish permanent peace in the world.
- Destructive Weapons: The destructive weapons, like Atom Bombs, were invented during the Second World War which could bring the end of the whole world in no time.
- Fear of the Third World War: The seeds of the Second World War had been sown in the First World War. All the countries feared that the Second World War could be the cause of the Third War.
7. Explain the need of international organization.
Ans. Organization plays a very significant role in the world full of antagonism, differences and conflicts.
- International Organization provides a ‘Common Platform’ where the countries can discuss contentious issues and final peaceful solutions.
- Technological promises to increase planetary interdependence have also increased the importance of UN.
- Not only this, the UN and its agencies provide financial assistance to developing countries in the form of grants and loans of over $ 25 billion a year. They also help to build and stabilize financial markets.
- In a world threatened by conflict, the UN provides the means for instant consultations among governments, as well as the forum for dealing with long-term problems.
8. State the principles of UNO.
Ans. The principles of UNO are as follows –
- The UNO is based on the sovereign equality of all its members.
- Each member-nation should perform her duty earnestly according to the Charter.
- Each member-nation should settle the disputes by peaceful means so that peace, security and justice in the world are not disturbed.
- All member-nations will not make use of threat and violence in their international relations.
9. Explain the role of India in UN Reforms.
Ans. The following are the role of India in UN Reforms –
- India is the second most populous country in the world comprising almost one-fifths of the world population.
- India is the largest democratic country in the World.
- India has full faith in the UN and it has actively participated in all the initiatives of the United Nations.
- India has played an important role in the peace-keeping efforts of the UN.
- India has made regular financial contributions to the UN.
- India’s economy is increasing rapidly. India is now a developing country. Its economy is on sound footing.
- India has always helped the dependent countries in the attainment of freedom.
- India has played a very important role in furthering the efforts of the non-aligned movement for peace, security and development.
- India has conducted nuclear tests successfully to safeguard the security of India.
- India is aware that permanent membership of the Security Council also has symbolic importance.